3. Nouns


There are three noun declensions.

Noun Declensions
1st 2nd 3rd
Erg. Sg.
Pl. -a -a
Abs. Sg. -an -tö
Pl. -o -ana -to
Adp. Sg. -a -se -skä
Pl. -äa -sen -ssa

There's also a quasi-vocative case that's formed by following the ergative case form of the noun with the postposition `la', e.g. `Këtt la' (`O Keith').

The dative is formed from the adpositive case followed by the postposition `önä'. Using the ergative case with the very same postposition forms the genitive case.


The definite articles are modified forms of the demonstratives. They're `ërel' (`this'), `ahlar' (`that') and `nal' (`yon'). There are no indefinite articles; nouns are indefinite by default. The article follows its noun, e.g. `alsen nahlo' (`towards the/yon house'). Use of `nal' can imply the future. They're not used quite as often as in, say, English but

alsen     nal-o
house.ERG yon.to


Postpositions are used with either the ergative case or the adpositive case. The general rule is that to imply motion, the ergative case is used (`towards'), whilst the adpositive case is used otherwise (`to').

Where there's an article, the postposition becomes part of the article. This causes sound changes in the article where the postposition starts with a vowel.

l -> hl
r -> l

The same sort of elision doesn't occur with nouns.

This is a counter © Keith Gaughan, 2001
Previous: Verbs
Next: Pronouns