The cost in human lives of "The Great War" was enormous. The financial cost to the combatant countries was also very great, vast quantities of money being necessary for the purchase of arms, ammunition, horses, food, supplies and transport for the armed forces. By 1917, the various governments involved had used up huge amounts of pre-war resources and had spent vast sums from taxes upon the military efforts in the various theatres of war. Civilians were being urged to contribute extra money to the war coffers by giving extra money directly themselves, and even to donate jewellery to the war effort.

1 February 1917 Submarine Warfare Germany introduces a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, further antagonising the Americans
3 February 1917 Diplomatic rift The United States of America sever diplomatic relations with Germany
21 February1917 German re-alignment Germany pulls back its forces and consolidates them along a strongly fortified front line between Arras and Soissons, known as The Hindenburg Line
9 March 1917 Russian Revolution Food riots in Petrograd trigger the Russian Revolution
11 March 1917 Victory British forces capture the city of Baghdad in Iraq
13 March 1917 New regime New Provisional Government formed in Russia
15 March 1917 Abdication Nicholas Romanov. Tsar of Russia, abdicates as Russian sovereign ruler
21 March 1917 Tsar captured Tsar Nicholas and the entire Russian Royal Family are arrested by revolutionary forces
6 April 1917 War declared The United States of America declare war on Germany, following the German refusal to negociate to abandon the German policy of unrestricted submarine warfare.

9 April 1917

Battle of Arras, second Battle of Vimy

The beginning of The Battle of Arras. Canadian forces capture Vimy Ridge in an heroic action with heavy casualties.

15 April 1917 Leader dismissed French General Petain is dismissed and succeeded by General Nivelle

16 April 1917

Second Battle of The Aisne (The Nivelle Offensive)

French General Nivelle orders this Offensive in the area of Chemin des Dames. French troops suffer heavy losses. Nivelle is dismissed and replaced by General Petain. Mutinies occur in the French Army from April 1917 to August 1918.

7 June 1917

Battle of Messines

The British forces capture the Messines-Wytschaete Ridge

25 June 1917

American engagement

American troops arrive on The Western Front

30 Jun 1917

Diplomatic rift

Greece breaks off diplomatic relations with Austria-Hungary and Germany

1 July 1917 Eastern Front Start of a Russian offensive in Galicia
23 July 1917 Defeat Russian troops are routed in Galicia
July 31 to 10 November 1917 Third Battle of Ypres. (Battle of Passchendaele) British troops mount an offensive near Passchendaele, Belgium, making gain of just 8 miles (13 Kilometres) and sustaining massive casualties
14 August 1917 War declared China declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary
19 & 20 August 1917 Southern front Italy attacks Austria-Hungary along a front between Isonzo and Carso
2 to 30 September 1917 German air raids The German Air Force launches bombing raids on London and South-East England, in which Zeppelin airships feature prominently
2 October 1917 Southern Front Austrian-Hungarian and German forces break through the Italian Defence Lines
24 October 1917 Italian Front Attacks by forces of Germany and Austria-Hungary continue to break through the Italian defence lines
6 November 1917 Battle of Passchendaele Canadian and British forces capture Passchendaele Ridge in Belgium
15 November 1917 New leader M. Clemenceau becomes the new French Prime Minister
20 November 1917 Battle of Cambrai British troops spearheaded by a force of tanks begin an attack on Cambrai. The first 5 days of the battle bring British gains.
25 November to 4 December 1917 Battle of Cambrai Initial British gains are lost to fierce German counter-attacks
5 December 1917 Armistice Germany and Russia sign an Armistice at Brest-Litovsk (now in the modern state of Belarus)
7 December 1917 War Declaration The United States of America declare war on Austria
9 December 1917 Middle East Front Following a campaign of desert warfare by Arab guerilla troops led by T.E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia"), British troops led by General Allenby capture the city of Jerusalem in Palestine.
15 December 1917 Eastern Front Peace negociations begin at Brest-Livotsk between Russia and Germany

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