Acupuncture in Genitourinary & related Conditions:
4. References

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1#Ader L, Hansson B, Wallin G (1990) Parturition pain treated by intracutaneous injections of sterile water. Pain May; 41 (2):133-138. Dept of Obs&Gyn, Central Hospital, Molndal, Sweden. Forty-five pregnant women in the first stage of parturition presenting with lower back pain were randomised into 2 groups. One group received intracutaneous injections of sterile water in the lumbosacral region, while the other group was given corresponding subcutaneous injections of isotonic saline, regarded as a placebo treatment. In the group that received intracutaneous sterile water injections the mean VAS score was significantly more reduced compared to the placebo group at 10 min (p<.001), 45 min (p<.02), & at 90 min (p<.05) after the treatment. The midwives' blind estimation of the effectiveness of treatment was consistent with the VAS assessment. However, the requirement of pethidine (meperidine) was similar in the 2 groups. The analgesic method presented was found to be an effective treatment against lower back pain during the first stage of parturition & it is speculated that the mode of action resembles AP. Randomised controlled trial. Comment in: Pain 1991 May; 45 (2):220.

2#Aleksandrina EV; Zharkin AF; Gavrilova AS (1992) [The AP prevention of anomalies in parturition strength in pregnant women of a risk group]. Akush Ginekol (Mosk), 8-12 22-24. AP was carried out for 3-6 d in the course of preparation for parturition of 80 pregnant women at risk of developing abnormalities of parturition. Points on the LU, KI, ST & CV Channels, & Ear- points were used. AP enhanced mainly the cholinergic-type activities of the ANS. Women who had received AP before the birth had a more normal course of spontaneous parturition & significantly less blood loss than those who had not received AP.

3#Alieva EA, Fanchenko ND, Pshenichnikova TIa, Parshutin NP, Gasparov AS, Vetr M (1990) [The PCOS & increased body mass - Article in Russian]. Acta Univ Palacki Olomuc Fac Med 126:233-240. Also: Alieva EA, Fanchenko ND, Parshutin NP, Gasparov AS, Pshenichnikova TIa. (1993) [The effect of a decrease in body weight in patients with the PCOS - Article in Russian]. Akush Ginekol (Mosk) 1993; 3:33-36. 80 patients with PCOS & obesity were investigated. Weight loss was achieved by means of a diet in 60 patients, & AP in 20 patients. Treatment induced pregnancy in 34% patients. Therefore therapeutic diet or AP may be recommended as the first stage of treatment for weight reduction in PCOS patients.

4#Allen DL, Kitching AJ, Nagle C (1994) PC06 acupressure & nausea & vomiting after gynaecological surgery. Anaesth Intensive Care Dec; 22 (6):691-693. Dept of Anaesthesia, Northampton General Hospital, England. We studied the effect of PC06 acupressure on 46 women undergoing laparotomy for major gynaecological surgery who received patient-controlled analgesia. 23 received acupressure at the PC06, the other 23 received acupressure at a "sham" site. There was a reduction in the requests for anti-emetic therapy in the group receiving PC06 acupressure but there was no difference in the incidence of nausea & vomiting. There was no difference in total morphine consumption between the two groups. Randomised controlled trial.

6#al-Sadi M, Newman B, Julious SA (1997) AP in the prevention of postoperative nausea & vomiting. Anaesthesia Jul; 52 (7):658-661. Dept of Anaesthesia, Poole Hospital Trust, UK. The efficacy of intraoperative AP at the PC06 point in the prevention of postoperative nausea or vomiting was studied. A double-blind randomised controlled study of AP versus placebo was performed in 81 patients scheduled for d case gynaecological laparoscopic surgery. Failure of treatment was defined as the occurrence of nausea or vomiting before or within 24 h of discharge. The use of AP reduced the incidence of postoperative nausea or vomiting in hospital from 65% to 35% compared with placebo & after discharge from 69% to 31% compared with placebo. Randomised controlled trial. See also: Allen DL, Kitching AJ, Nagle C (1994) / Belluomini J, Litt RC, Lee KA, Katz M (1994) / de Aloysio D, Penacchioni P (1992) / Dundee JW, Ghaly RG, Bill KM, Chestnutt WN, Fitzpatrick KT, Lynas AG (1989) / Dundee JW; Chestnutt WN; Ghaly RG (1986) / Ghaly RG; Fitzpatrick KT; Dundee JW (1987) / Gieron C, Wieland B, von der Laage D, Tolksdorf W (1993) / Hyde F (1989)

7#An XC; Zhao HS; Li XC (1984) [Clinical observations of 254 cases with AP treatment of vesical & anal functional disorder resulted from occult spina bifida of the sacral region]. 2nd Natl Symp AP-Mox & APA (Beijing):77-78. 254 cases of occult sacral spina bifida were treated. AP points were selected according to the symptoms. For urinary incontinence / dribbling: CV03, KI11 + SP06; for enuresis: X_35-Huatojiaji; for dysuria: GV20, GV11, GV04 + BL54; for faecal incontinence: GV01, CV01 & Perianal Points. Needles were retained for 20-30 min, once every 1-2 d, for 10 times/course, for 3-5 courses. Therapeutic effects were assessed according to the symptoms, volume of residual urine & uroflow rate etc. Excellent in 61 cases (24%), improved in 174 cases (69%), & unchanged in 19 cases (7). 101 cases that had improvement when discharged were followed up for 1-12 yr. The therapeutic effects have persisted in 50 cases (50%), decreased in 30 (30%), vanished in 15 cases (15%), & 6 (5%) died during the period of severe urethral infections & uraemia except one who died from hepatitis.

8#Anon (1988) Therapeutic effect of microwave AP on 53 cases of proliferative mastosis. JTCM Mar; 8(1):23-4.

9#Anon (1995) Electric blankets & birth defects. New Scientist 2 Aug, p11. This reports the first study to show a link between exposure to EMFs (electromagnetic fields) & birth defects. The study looked at 486 women who had been trying to conceive for >12 mo. They found that those who slept with their electric blanket switched on were 7 times more likely to have babies with urinary tract defects than those who turned their blankets off.

10#Arkatov VA; Zverev VV; Volkovinskii KE (1992) [The effect of tramal & APA on parturition pain & the psychoemotional status of the parturient]. Anesteziol Reanimatol Mar-Apr 2:31-33. The changes in psychoemotional status, & the intensity & structure of parturition-pain, were studied in 65 women with reference to the use of concomitant correcting therapy during various types of analgesia. 44 women comprised a control group. APA was optimal during delivery without any correcting therapy, while tramal (at a dose of 1.43+0.06 mg/kg) was optimal during "programmed" delivery.

11#Asakawa K (1988) [Impotence]. Clin JTCM 9 (3):347. A 39-yr old male patient complaining of scrotal pain 1.5 yr ago was diagnosed as varicocele. 1 yr later he had difficulty of urination after eating hot-flavoured noodles & was diagnosed as prostatitis. From then on he had decreased sexual desire, with weak erection & prospermia. The urologist considered the symptoms not to be associated with varicocele nor prostatitis. Symptoms of impotence did not improve even when prostatitis was cured. Examination revealed weak tonus of the abdomen, loss of resistance even pitting on palpation at the lower abdomen near CV04, cold feet & wet sole, superficial weak pulse especially at Chi position, purplish red tongue proper particularly at the tip, with white coating at the base of the tongue. Not only KI Yang Xu but also Stasis of LV Qi with HT abnormality were considered & he was treated mainly by the method of reinforcing KI & soothing LV with regulating HT by means of AP & herbal medicine & was cured after 2 mo of treatment. Varicocele & prostatitis may develop from downward flow of Damp & Heat into Lower Jiao. Their relationship with KI Xu Syndrome causing impotence needs investigation.

12#Asakawa K (1988) [Nocturia]. Clin JTCM 9(4):445. A girl student at the third Year of secondary school complained of nocturia every 1-2 d since she was 3-4 yr-old. Urologic examination revealed no organic changes & she failed to respond to Xiao Jianzhong Decoction. The girl looked thin, pale, with puffy face, light red tongue with thin white coating & cracking striae at the tip. Her pulse was rapid, superficial & firm, weak at Chi position as an evidence of KI-Xu. She also had bad dreams, heaviness, vertigo, lassitude, frozen shoulder, cold feet, dry throat & poor appetite. Acupoints to reinforce KI & strengthen SP were chosen. Treatment was twice/wk. Enuresis disappeared after the first AP & she was cured after 3 sessions without recurrence.

13#Aso T, Motohashi T, Murata M, Nishimura T, Kakizaki K (1976) The influence of AP stimulation on plasma levels of LH, FSH, progesterone & E2 in normally ovulating women. Am J Chin Med 4 (4):391-401. No details.

14#Bahr FR (1994) [AP in Obs&Gyn]. Gynakologe Dec 27(6):369-374. In German. No abstract online.

15#Ban XW (1988) [Medical notes on Zhuang medicine: abdominal diseases treated by AP at point ST36]. Guangxi JTCM Mater Med 11(2):84-85. The paper introduced the functions & clinical application of ST36. 1. Prevention of diseases & health care; 2. Invasion of external pathogenic factors in weak persons; 3. Epigastric pains; 4. Fever due to malaria; 5. Infantile enuresis; 6. Dysmenorrhoea.

16#Bartocci C, Lucentini M (1981) [AP & micro-massage in the treatment of idiopathic nocturnal enuresis- Article in Italian]. Minerva Med Sep 15; 72(33):2237. 1) Goals of the Research. We have treated 15 cases of night enuresis (4-13 yr) 9 of which had already been treated with other therapies without success, in order to compare the two methods. 2) Methods: A) AP in 10 cases at a) HT07, ST36, SP06, CV03; b) BL23, BL28, BL32, alternatively every 2 d, for a mean of 10 times. B) 5 cases were treated by micromassage on the "Nocturia" Points in the creases between the phalanges 1-2 & 2-3 of finger 5 (P. Chang); the first session was in the presence of parents; they then repeated treatments at home every night for 10 min, for a mean of 20 d. With AP: 7/10 cured completely, 2 partially, & 1 failed. With micromassage: 2/5 cured completely, 1 partially, & 2 failed. Both groups were followed-up up to 4 mo after the last treatment. AP produces better results, but because of its simplicity, micromassage is a valid alternative mostly in little children who reject AP & it should be further investigated.

17#Beal MW (1998) Women's use of complementary & alternative therapies in reproductive health care. J Nurse Midwifery May; 43 (3):224-234. Yale Univ School of Nursing, New Haven, CT 06536-0740, USA. Numerous studies have documented that health care consumers all over the world are spending money out of pocket for alternative therapies & that billions of dollars are spent in the United States alone. In this article, the use of complementary & alternative therapies by women health care consumers is discussed, particularly as this phenomenon relates to women's reproductive health in the United States. Women use conventional health care services more frequently than men; thus, it is not surprising that women account for approximately two thirds of health care appointments for complementary & alternative therapies. The traditional conceptual frameworks of herbal medicine, homeopathy, AP, & acupressure are presented, & common clinical applications to women's reproductive care are discussed. Review, tutorial

18#Beal MW2 (1992) AP & related treatment modalities: 2: Applications to antepartal & intrapartal care. J Nurse Midwifery Jul-Aug 37(4):260-268. Yale Univ Sch of Nursing, New Haven, CT 06536-0740. The application of AP, moxa, acupressure, & shiatsu to antepartal & intrapartal care are discussed. Information on therapeutic interventions as described in textbooks is presented & compared with specific treatments evaluated in research studies. Specific clinical indications addressed include nausea during pregnancy, repositioning of the foetus in breech position, stimulation of contractions & true parturition, & pain relief in parturition. Qualifications for practitioners & recommendations for certified nurse-midwives caring for clients seeking referral for these services are discussed.

19#Becke H (1982) [Neural therapy & AP in Obs&Gyn - Article in German]. Zentralbl Gynakol 104 (10):602-609. A brief characterisation is made of the working principles underlying neural therapy under local anaesthesia or AP. Common approaches to therapy are offered by disorders of autonomous regulation, including inflammatory processes, & by purely functional disorders. There are many applications in Obs&Gyn. Brief data on lumbosacral pain are quoted as an example. Optimum performance can be expected from them, when used in combination with proven therapeutic methods. They provide a low-cost approach to reducing both the consumption of antibiotics & other pharmaceuticals as well as time of morbidity.

20#Becke H (1988) [EAP in the treatment of pre-menstrual breast pain]. Dtsch Z Akupunkt (DZA) 31(4):96-97. Oedema of the lymphatic vessels & hypertonia of the smooth muscles (milk producing glands & gland tissue) cause pre-menstrual mammary pain as well as the striated thoracic muscles. The aetiology suggests an E2-progesterone-imbalance with hyperprolactinaemia. Hormone therapy involves systemic side effects & means long-term therapy. The same applies to spasmolytic & psychovegetative suppressing substances. EAP takes 1-3 min/treatment. The duration of impulse/application is 0.5 sec., intensity of current 170 uA. Therapy is carried out during the painful phase. Immediate & impressive pain relief achieved. On average, 1-3 sessions/mo are required to obtain a permanent effect (6 mo without symptoms). Defined AP points & TPs are used. In relapses, the aim is to resolve blocking in the cervical-thorax border or in the ribs.

21#Belluomini J, Litt RC, Lee KA, Katz M (1994) Acupressure for nausea & vomiting of pregnancy: a randomised, blinded study. Obstet Gynecol Aug; 84 (2):245-248. Dept of Obs&Gyn, California Pacific Medical Centre, San Francisco. They evaluated acupressure in reducing nausea & vomiting of pregnancy. Symptomatic pregnant women were randomised to one of two acupressure groups: one treatment group used acupressure at PC06; the sham control group used a placebo point. Subjects were blind to the group assignment. Each evening for 10 d, the subjects completed an assessment scale describing the severity & frequency of symptoms that occurred. Data from the first 3 d were used as pre-treatment scores. Beginning on the morning of the d 4, each subject used acupressure at her assigned point for 10 min four times/d. Data from d 4 were discarded to allow 24 h for the treatment to take effect. Data from d 5-7 were used to measure treatment effect. 60 women completed the study. There were no differences between groups in attrition, parity, foetal number, maternal age, gestational age at entry, or pre-treatment nausea & emesis scores. Analysis of variance indicated that both groups improved significantly over time, but that nausea improved significantly more in the treatment group than in the sham control group (F1, 58=10.4, p=.0021). There were no differences in the severity or frequency of emesis between the groups. There was a significant positive correlation (r=0.261, P=.044) between maternal age & severity of nausea. Acupressure at PC06 was effective in reducing symptoms of nausea but not frequency of vomiting in pregnant women. Randomised controlled trial. Comment in: Obstet Gynecol 1995 Jan; 85 (1):159-60.

22#Ben H; Zhu YG; Ye YY (1989) [Primary experimental study on the effects of AP on the function of urinary bladder of rabbits]. Chin AP Moxibust 9(4):37-39. They observed the effects of Ear-AP on bladder function in rabbits. Urine output increased after EAP at BL23 & Earpoint Subcortex, indicating an improved adaptability of the bladder wall. The results provide clues to explain the effectiveness of AP treatment of enuresis in children.

23#Bercovici JP; Mingam M (1985) [Amenorrhoeas & AP]. Meridiens 69-70:147-157. They report AP treatment of 25 secondary amenorrhoeas (18 hypothalamic amenorrhoeas & 7 amenorrhoeas with ovarian dystrophy). Positive results were >50%, which points to a biological & clinical profile (western & eastern) of the patients who are successfully treated. Neuroendocrine hypotheses are formulated in order to explain the AP action on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal level.

25#Berks A (1996) AP in Parturition & Delivery. Adapted from WWW. [After an uncomplicated delivery, Alex & Denise's son Noah Loren was born on 20 Aug 1996. For information on how to order Bob Flaws' books, please see the Blue Poppy Press page at the Book Farm: WebMaster]. /The use of TCM in parturition & delivery can be understand in many ways. Like all activities of life, parturition induces a shift in the directionality of the Qi. This may be more important to understand than simple point prescriptions; once one understands the nature of Qi & the points, it is a simple & creative process to choose effective AP points./For the pregnancy, mother has been holding the foetus in & up with her SP-Qi. All the other Zang-Fu Qi has had to spread & regulate & consolidate evenly. During parturition, the Qi must go down & out. Both psychological & physical factors can slow or block this, causing Qi Stasis. Bob Flaws in his book "Path of Pregnancy Vol 1", lists 3 causes of delayed parturition: Qi-Xue-Xu, Qi-Xue-Stasis, & Middle Jiao Qi-Xu. All three cause insufficient Qi and/or Xue to move the foetus down & out the birth canal./The easiest of these to treat is Qi-Xue-Stasis. If the mother-to be can relax & get the uterus to relax, parturition will not be far behind. This can be done with many different therapeutic activities: stimulate the uterus with belly massage, have an orgasm, relax & visualise the uterus contracting. Bob Flaws quotes Wan Mi-Zhai (p169): "If parturition goes on for <1 d, the woman is preoccupied with family & personal affairs & still has an appetite, this is due to astringing of the uterus. But if the woman's parturition goes on for >1 d, all the woman's affairs are settled & her appetite diminished, this is insufficiency of middle Qi not able to transport the & move the foetus"./Yin Channel Qi rises. Yang Channel Qi descends. Therefore, moxa or acupressure down the Yang Channels will assist downward movement of Qi. This principle is also applied in home remedies to bring on parturition such as castor oil, a stimulating purgative & a favourite of Edgar Cayce. See Childbearing Year by Susan Weed (p60)./Specific AP points that descend include: LI04, SP06, GB21. LI04 is LI Yuan point; SP06 is the "3 Yin Crossing" point of the Foot Yin Channels. LI04 & SP06 are important points to circulate Qi-Xue & induce downward movement & parturition. GB21 also descends (see Oriental Med J Spring, 1996 p6). These points can be combined with TH06 & LV03. Bob Flaws recommends not to retain the needles./ST36 (ST He-Sea, Earth, Hour & Uniting point) combines with SP06 invigorates SP & ST, produces Qi-Xue & induces parturition. These points can be needled, pressed, or warmed with moxa./Bob Flaws in "the Path of Pregnancy Vol 1" lists other possible point combinations: LI04, SP06, BL67, Du Yin (Extra point, on the plantar surface of the centre of the proximal phalangeal joint of the second toe). Needle the first 2 points & moxa the second 2. Another combination is: LI04, SP06, BL30 & Y_15-Qimen (Qi Door, also called Cuochanxue-Hastening Birth point, 3" lateral to CV04). Needle 5 fen in depth. In pronounced back parturition pain in the sacrum, needle BL31-34 transversely. Tape the needles in place flush with the skin & use EAP./Potential parturition problems can be greatly aided by the use of herbs & an appropriate activity before parturition to drain (disperse) Shi (Excess) or tonify (nourish) Xu (Weakness). However, AP also can act quickly on Qi-Stasis & Xue Stasis. For further discussion please read Bob Flaws Path of Pregnancy Vol 1./In my limited experience, having recently witnessed the birth of my son Noah, a clear plan of action, focused breathing, a synchronised supportive set of people at the birth & an emotionally clear parturient woman helps parturition. Strong physical fitness also helps. The acupressure that I was able to apply to her back, helped a great deal in preventing her use of medication./The "Bradley Way" is an enjoyable book on Natural childbirth. Though stern in its approach to delivery without Med intervention. It had the best advice to the woman in parturition & how the father should approach the situation as a birth coach.

26#Bian QX (1992) [A 32-case report of hysteromyoma treated by AP]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 11(1):18. To avoid injury, patients had to empty bladder before AP. Two point groups were alternated: CV03, ST30, BL32 & KI12, SP06. At abdominal points, a 1.5", 30 gauge needle was inserted straight in 25-30 mm deep; Xie Fa by twisting-rotating was used to make Deqi spread to perineum; needle was retained 25 min. At BL32, a 2.5, " 28 gauge needle was inserted straight into posterior sacral foramen 2, with Xie Fa by twisting-rotating & thrusting-lifting to make Deqi spread to lower abdomen. After Deqi, needles were removed immediately. At SP06, by normal Bu Fa-Xie Fa was used to make Deqi spread upwards; needle was retained for 25 min after Deqi. Treatment was every 2 d, 10 times/course. After 3-6 courses, 50% were clearly improved, 31% improved & 19% unchanged; total effective rate, 81%.

27#Bie YF (1992) [A preliminary summary of prostatic hyperplasia treated with fire needle]. J AP Moxibust 8 (5):39-40. Points selected were KI02, BL55 & SP06. Treatments were given with red-hot fire-needles. Of 28 cases treated, 21 were clinically cured, 6 effected & 1 exhibited no change, with an overall efficacy rate of 96%. Several different therapies to hypertrophy of prostate were analysed, of which the fire-needle is considered as applicable.

28#Buchheit H (1986) [Cytoplasmatic AP with foetal spleen in menopause]. Akupunkt Theorie Praxis 14 (1):28-35. In TCM "SP" has a central position to all other organ functions. The organ SP-in the same way like the female endometrium is a residual part of the primary tissue of the mesoblast. According to the author's explanation the function of SP in TCM is identical to the system of basic regulation of Pischinger. That means, SP functions would correspond with endometrial functions. AP with cytoplasmatic substances developed by the author in 1982 showed good efficacy using foetal SP dilution in vaginal acupoints. Thus application of oestrogens could be substituted by therapy with SP extracts without side effects.

29#Cai BX; Zhuang XL; Hua HJ (1984) [APA, epidural block & combined APA for prostatectomy: study of their anaesthetic effects & haemodynamic changes]. 2nd Natl Symp AP-Mox & APA (Beijing):209-210. In this paper, a comparison was made between the analgesic effects & haemodynamic changes of three anaesthetic methods for prostatectomy, i.e. APA, epidural block, & combination of APA with minimal doses of epidural block.

30#Cai ZM (1987) [Relation between markedness of Propagated Channel Sensation in Senegal patients & curative effects of AP in the treatment of enuresis]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 6(2):1-3. 361 patients with enuresis were treated with AP, Ear-AP or injection of 10% glucose saline. The relationship between the degree of PCS (propagated sensation along the Channel) & the effect of different therapy was observed. (1) The positive rate of PCS in Senegal was rather higher. First degree propagation was found in 142 cases (39%); (2) "Distant points along the Channel" & "Deqi reaching the affected area" methods were used. A marked effect was obtained; total effective rate was 94%; (3) The more marked PCS appeared, the more higher therapeutic effect; (4) In Ear-AP therapy, PCS was found in 31% of cases; there was a close relationship between the effective rate & the degree of PCS. Further study is worthwhile for this phenomenon. Also: Cai ZM (1987) Relation between the extent of distinctness of Propagated Channel Sensation & therapeutic effect of AP on enuresis in Senegal patients. AP Res:65-66. To clarify the relation between the distinct extent of PCS & the therapeutic effect, 361 cases of enuresis were treated with AP, Ear-AP & acuinjection of 0.05% atropine sulphate or scopolamine hydrobromide. Acuinjection was at bilateral SP09 & SP06, once every 1-2 d. Earpoints LU, SP, KI, Shenmen & BL were used for Ear-AP. Treatment was 1-2 times/wk. The distinct extent of PCS was graded into 5 degrees. Cure, marked improvement & effective rates of AP treatment on enuresis were 42, 37 & 15%, respectively; total effective rate was 94%. The therapeutic effect of AP on enuresis in subjects with marked PCS (I-II) was better than that without marked PCS (III-V), suggesting that the distinct extent of PCS was closely related to the therapeutic effect.

32#Caione P; Nappo S; Capozza N; Minni B; Ferro F (1994) Primary enuresis in children: Which treatment today? Minerva-Pediatr Oct 46(10):437-443. Dept di Chirurgia, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu-Roma. Enuresis is a problem that paediatric urologists are often called to treat. It affects 15-30% of school children. In 85% of affected children bedwetting is monosymptomatic, not accompanied by other voiding disorders or daytime incontinence. The physiopathology is not yet fully understood & the pathogenesis is multifactorial: genetic & psychological factors, sleep disorders, urinary reservoir abnormalities, urine production disorders can all play a part. Thus, the treatment of choice is still very controversial. Behavioural therapy (psychotherapy, bladder training & biofeedback, electric alarm) & pharmacological therapy (tricyclic antidepressants, anticholinergics, DDAVP) have been used with variable results. In our experience (54 enuretic children) DDAVP effectively reduced the number of wet nights/wk in 79% of cases. AP, which we have been using for many years, also gave good results in 55% of cases. Long term success of DDAVP & AP was respectively 50 & 40%. We discuss the probable pathophysiology & present our own results & those reported in the literature. Accurate diagnostic selection of cases & a better understanding of physiopathology are the basis of effective treatment of enuresis. Also: Capozza N; Creti C; De Gennaro M; Minni B; Caione P (1991) The treatment of nocturnal enuresis: A comparative study between desmopressin & AP used alone or in combination. Minerva Pediatrica Sep 43(9):577-582. In Italian. From Mar to Sep 1989, 40 children, 4-14 yr-old, with primary nocturnal enuresis were included in a study to assess the comparative therapeutic efficacy of DDAVP & AP. Children were assigned to 4 treatment groups (n=10/group): A=DDAVP; B=AP; C=DDAVP + AP and; D=Placebo (untreated control). The trial design included 3 periods: observation (2 wk), treatment (8 wk) & follow-up (4 wk). 19 children completed the study. When used separately, DDAVP & AP were highly effective treatments, as expressed by % of dry nights. However, the combined treatment of DDAVP + AP was best as regards the % of dry nights at the end of treatment & as regards the stability of results after the end of the study. Detailed analysis of correlations between type of treatment & urinary osmolarity is given.

33#Cao GF; Lin HQ; Yu Y (1989) [Urinary calculi treated by electric stimulation at Ear & Body acupoints combined with Chinese herbal drugs: Report of 127 cases]. Liaoning JTCM 13(6):37-38. Earpoints: KI, Ureter, BL & Urethra were selected. Shenmen & Sympathetic were added in cases of severe pain. EAP was used via JJ201 Channel therapy apparatus. Treatment on body points with various frequencies for 2-3 min, 10 times/d for 1 mo. 2. Huashi Tang (decoction to dissolve the urinary stones) Chinese drugs included Prostate, Knotweed, Pyrrosia leaf, Safflower, Dried Vaccaria seed, Achyranthes root, Yunaoshi twice/d. Result: 69% were cured, 20% effective, 11% ineffective. The total effective rate was 89%.

34#Cardini F; Basevi V; Valentini A; Martellato A (1991) Moxibustion & breech presentation: preliminary results. AJCM 19(2):105-114. Div of Obs&Gyn, Zevio Hospital, Verona, Italy. Moxa use at BL67 is an ancient method to correct foetal malpresentation during the last 3 mo of pregnancy. The authors reviewed Chinese references on this subject & stressed the importance of parity & gestational age in testing the efficacy of this therapy. Preliminary results are compared with Chinese reports. Success rates in foetal version by moxibustion versus spontaneous version are also compared. Also: Cardini F; Marcolongo A (1993) Moxibustion to correct breech presentation: a clinical study with retrospective control. AJCM 21(2):133-138. Dept of Obs&Gyn, Policlinico Borgo Roma, Verona, Italy. In this study we treated a group of women during pregnancy by moxa use at point BL67, to obtain foetal inversion in breech presentation. Comparison is made with a control group drawn retrospectively from clinical files at a regional hospital. The aim of the study is to identify the ideal population (in terms of parity & gestational age) to be included in a randomised controlled trial.

35#Ceffa GC, Gandini G (1979) [Telethermographic evaluation of the use of AP in fibrocystic dysplasia in the painful phase - Article in Italian]. Minerva Med May 19; 70(24):1745-54. With this preliminary note the writers propose an objective documentation of AP's effects in fibrocystic mastopathy during the painful phase, using thermography. 5 patients were treated at KI06, SP05, SP06, & LV04 all in the same session. 4/5 cases had remission of symptoms & symptomatic change of the thermography picture. In the treated cases menstruation was always marked in advance. Also: Ceffa GC, Chio C, Gandini G (1981) [AP in breast diseases - How, when & why - Article in Italian]. Minerva Med Sep 15; 72(33):2239-42. We assessed AP in 43 females with breast pain, compared with other similar groups treated with anti-inflammatory drugs & multivitamins. Before & after treatment every patient went through a complete clinical & instrumental examination in which we also assessed with telethermography the condition of mastosic vascular congestion. Positive considerations are made about the therapeutic validity of AP that has reached the highest success (>95%) in comparison with other traditional methods, & patients really appreciated that. We nevertheless emphasise the need to always associate a correct, objective & instrumental study before starting any therapy of mammary pain, to exclude coexistence of a sort of productive or surgical pathology.

36#Cerovsky J, Hudecek V, Rozkot M, Harapat D, Hercik Z (1999) AP to Induce Oestrus in Gilts. Web Journal of AP [] Res Inst of Animal Prod, Praha-Uhrineves, 51741 Kostelec n. Orlici, & ZEVOS Zizelice, SVCH Prevysov, Czech Republic. Using 104 acyclic hybrid (Large White x Landrace) gilts, we studied the efficacy of AP to induce oestrus. We compared the results of aquapuncture (AA, n=20) at acupoints Baihui & Weiken with those of moxa-AP (MA, n=44) at the same points, & with data from untreated control gilts (C, n=40). The interval from the start of the trial to oestrus (and mating) in the control (C) & AP-treated (AA+MA) gilts & was 30.8 v 17.6 d, p<.01). AP treatment shortened the interval to oestrus (and mating) by 13.2 d (p<.01). The percentages of gilts induced into oestrus within the 28 d after the last treatment in groups C, AA, MA, & (AA+MA) were 57.5, 70.0, 70.4, & 70.3%, respectively. These differences were not significant (P >0.05). Further research, with larger numbers of gilts, is needed to re-examine that finding.

37#Chai WJ (1988) [Current status in AP & moxibustion therapy of male infertility & sex disorders]. Chin AP Moxibust 8 (4):51-53. This article presents the treatment of male infertility & sexual dysfunction by means of AP, mild moxibustion, combination of both, Ear-AP & acupoint injection. These treating methods have claimed satisfactory therapeutic effect for impotence, defective ejaculation, spermatorrhoea (involuntary seminal emission), premature ejaculation, dyspermia etc.

38#Chang PL (1988) Urodynamic studies in AP for women with frequency, urgency & dysuria. J Urol Sep; 140(3):563-6. Dept of Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. Urodynamic measurements were performed before & after AP at 2 different points in 52 women who presented with frequency, urgency & dysuria. Measurements included cystometry, anal sphincter electromyography, urethral pressure profilometry & uroflowmetry. The results of this study showed a significant increase in maximum cystometric capacity & a decrease in peak urinary flow rate after AP at SP06, which has traditionally been used for the treatment of urinary problems. During AP at SP06 there were periodic increases in intraurethral pressure at the distal urethra, which were measured with a microtip transducer. AP-induced detrusor inhibition & external sphincteric contractions were demonstrated. Clinically symptomatic improvement was noted in 22/26 patients treated by AP at SP06. AP can be used as a simple & effective method to treat female patients with frequency, urgency & dysuria. PMID: 3411675, UI: 88317081

39#Chang PL; Wu CJ; Huang MH (1993) Long-term outcome of AP in women with frequency, urgency & dysuria. AJCM 21(3-4):231-236. Dept of Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung Med Coll, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Urodynamic measurements including cystometry, anal sphincter EMG, urethral pressure profilometry & uroflowmetry were carried out on 21 females before AP & at 1 & 3 yr during follow-up. Follow-up ranged from 60-72 (mean 66) mo. Differences in urodynamic measurements before AP & at the 1- or 3- yr follow-up were not significant. During follow-up, AP at SP06 was performed in cases that had recurrence of symptoms of frequency, urgency & dysuria. Mean number of AP treatments was 4.8 (range 2-8). 8 cases decreased their AP treatments after 30 mo, but this was not statistically significant. The long-term outcome of AP at SP06 for women with frequency, urgency & dysuria was positive, but that the effect was temporary & repeated AP was necessary to maintain beneficial effects.

40#Chen B, Gao H, Ji S (1994) [The effects of naloxone & EAP on the release of GnRH from female rat's preoptic area - Article in Chinese]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu (AP Res) 19 (2):31-34. Dept of Neurobiology, Shanghai Medical Univ. By means of push-pull perfusion technique & RIA we determined the GnRH concentration of the perfusates from preoptic area (POA) in ovariectomised (OVX) & intact (INT) female rats, to observe the influence of naloxone & EAP on the release of GnRH & beta-endorphin from POA. The basic GnRH level of POA perfusate in OVX was 271.8+77.5pg/ml & in INT was 52.4+11.1pg/ml. There was a significant difference between the basic levels of two groups (p<.02, n=12). No difference of beta-endorphin basic level in OVX & INT was found. The GnRH level of POA perfusate in OVX was increased by 146.6+46.5pg/ml (p<.01, n=12) 30 min after i/p administration of naloxone, but no obvious change was found in INT after naloxone administration. EAP had no effect on the release of GnRH & beta-endorphin in both OVX & INT. Negative feedback of oestrogen may be a major regulative factor of GnRH under normal conditions; central opioid peptides may be the main regulative mechanism for GnRH after abolition of oestrogen feedback induced by ovariectomy.

41#Chen B, Ji S, Gao H, He L (1994) [The effects of EAP treatment on nucleolar organiser regions of adrenal cortex in ovariectomised rats - Article in Chinese]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu (AP Res) 19 (1):46-50. Inst of AP Research, Shanghai Medical Univ, PRC. They report the morphometric analysis of nucleolar organiser regions (NORs) of the adrenal cortex in ovariectomised rats after EAP using argyrephil (Ag-NOR) method for NORs. Animals were divided into four groups, the control group (CT group, n=4), the EAP group (n=3), the ovariectomised group (OV group, n=4) & the ovariectomised EAP group, (OV+EAP group, n=7). The number of AgNORs of 100 cells from zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex in each case of all groups was counted at random & the mean+SE (number/cell) in each group was calculated as follows: OV+EAP group 2.71+0.26, OV group 1.62+0.15, EAP group 1.21+0.04 & CT group 1.48+0.03. The mean of AgNORs in OV+EAP group differed highly significantly from the other three groups (p<.01) tested by ANOVA & LSD method, No significant distinction was found among the OV group, EAP group & CT group. Gross specimen examination showed that adrenal glands in OV+EAP were significantly heavier than those in the other three groups (p<.01). Vaginal smears showed that a response like that of oestrogen-induced with exfoliative cells appeared in the OV+EAP group rats after EAP. EAP had no influence on the change of exfoliative cells in EAP group. EAP may promote the synthesis & secretion of the adrenal steroids, the androgen of which will then be transformed into oestrogen in other tissues, thus compensating the deficiency of E2 induced by ovariectomy.

42#Chen BY (1997) AP normalises dysfunction of HPOA. AP Electrother Res 22 (2):97-108. Inst of AP, Shanghai Medical Univ, PRC. This article summarises the studies of the mechanism of EAP in the regulation of the abnormal function of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis (HPOA) in our laboratory. EAP at effective acupoints could cure some anovulatory patients in a highly effective rate. EAP may regulate the dysfunction of HPOA in several ways, which means EAP could influence some gene expression of brain, thereby, normalising secretion of some hormones, such as GnRH, LH & E2. The effects of EAP at different acupoints may be relatively specific.

43#Chen BY, He L (1992) EAP enhances activity of adrenal nucleolar organiser regions in ovariectomised rats. AP Electrother Res 17 (1):15-20. Inst to AP Research, Shanghai Medical Univ, PRC. Nucleolar organiser regions (NORs) may reflect the activity of cell Differentiation & transcription of nucleolar rDNA; the present paper studied nucleolar organiser regions of the adrenal cortex to explore the regulatory effect of EAP. Animals were divided into four groups: (1) ovariectomised EAP group (OV+EAP group, n=7); (2) ovariectomised group (OV group, n=4); (3) EAP group (n=3); (4) control group (CT group, n=4). Number of AgNORs of 100 cells from zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex in each case of the four groups was counted at random & the mean+SE (number/cell) in each group was calculated as follows: OV+EAP group, 2.71+0.26, OV group, 1.26+0.15, EAP group, 1.21+0.04 & CT group, 1.48+0.03. The mean of AgNORs in OV+EAP group differed highly significantly from the other three groups (p<.01) as tested with ANOVA & LSD method. No significant difference was found among the other three groups. Gross specimen examination showed that adrenals in the OV+EAP group were significantly heavier than those in the other three groups (p<.01). Vaginal smears showed that a response like oestrogen-induced one with exfoliative cells appeared in the OV+EAP group. EAP had no significant effect on normal rats. EAP may promote the synthesis & secretion of adrenal steroid hormones, the androgen of which will then be transformed into oestrogen in other tissues, thus compensating the deficiency of E2 induced by ovariectomy.

44#Chen BY; Yu J (1991) Relationship between blood radioimmunoreactive beta-End & hand skin temperature during the EAP induction of ovulation. AETRIJ 16(1-2):1-5. Inst of AP Research, Shanghai Med Univ, PRC. 13 cycles of anovulation menstruation in 11 cases were treated with EAP to induce ovulation. In 6 of these cycles that showed ovulation, the hand skin temperature (HST) of these patients was increased after EAP. In the other 7 cycles ovulation was not induced. There were no regular changes in HST of 5 normal subjects. The level of radioimmunoreactive beta-End (r beta-E) fluctuated, & returned to the pre-AP level by 30 min after withdrawal of needles in normal subjects. After EAP, the level of blood r beta-E in cycles with ovulation declined or maintained the range of normal subjects. But the level of blood r beta-E in cycles in which the induction failed to cause ovulation was kept higher than normal (p<.05). There was a negative correlation in the decrease of blood r beta-E & increase of HST after EAP (r=.677, p<.01). EAP can regulate the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Since a good response is usually accompanied with the increase of HST, monitoring HST may provide a rough but simple method to predict the curative effect of EAP. The role of r beta-E in the mechanism of ovulation induction by EAP was discussed.

45#Chen C; Gao ZW; Lin JF (1989) [Laser-AP in the treatment of chronic prostatitis]. Chin AP Moxibust 9 (5):5-7. Laser-AP & simple AP were used to treat 104 cases with chronic prostatitis. The laser group: effective rate: 84.9; AP group: effective rate: 52.6. Laser stimulation: He-Ne laser-AP apparatus developed by Pingyang Factory in Zhejiang. Power, 3mW; wavelength, 6328 Angstrom; needle-tip output power 0.5mW. Needle: 1.5" or no.28, 3". Main points selected were BL32 & BL30. Helper points were selected according to Differentiation of Syndromes. It was shown that laser had a stronger effect than AP needles. Results of experimental study were also reported.

46#Chen C; Gao ZW; Liu YL (1991) [Clinical observations & experimental researches on laser-AP in the treatment of 122 cases of chronic prostatitis]. Pap Inter Cong Tradit Med (Beijing '91):121. This article discusses the treatment of 122 cases of chronic prostatitis by laser-AP versus needle AP with a total cure rate of 71%, among which, the cure rate of the group treated by laser-AP was 83% while that in the group treated by AP was 52%. He-Ne Laser-AP was superior to simple AP. Needling the Prostate Point and/or BL32 & BL30 showed no marked difference in curative effect; all these points were effective. Selection of the normal points is easy, safe & causes less suffering to the patients. But the Prostate point has its specific effect when prostatitis is marked by perineal pain. The follow-up study of 32 cases indicated a total relapse rate of only 16% in 2 yr; the effect of the short-term laser-AP was confirmed, & the mid-term effect was stabilised.

47#Chen C; Xu XP (1991) Summary of AP-treatment of chronic prostatitis. J Zhejiang TCM Coll 15 (4):48-49. The treatment of chronic prostatitis with somatic AP, Ear-AP, hydro-AP, EAP & laser-AP was reviewed & the direction of future development was discussed.

48#Chen DB (1993) [Progress of clinical practice on Ear-plaster therapy in Dept of Paediatrics]. J Yunnan Coll TCM 16(4):39-41. The use of Earpoint-plaster therapy in paediatrics was reviewed from the aspects of the manipulations needed, materials used, such as drug pills, adhesive plaster & probe needle. Diseases treated included bronchitis, bronchial asthma, fever, epidemic parotitis, albinism, obesity, restless leg syndrome, weak intelligence, cerebral paralysis, abdominal pain, enuresis, anorexia, acute optic neuritis & nearsightedness.

49#Chen H (1993) Recent studies on Ear-AP & its mechanism. JTCM Jun; 13 (2):129-143. Shanghai Inst of AP & Moxibustion. This article is based on the review of more than eighty references involving AP therapy, APA, Earpoint for diagnosis & its mechanism. Part 1 deals with point selection, methods of manipulation, therapeutic effects & related experience in 56 kinds of disease. These include respiratory, circulatory, digestive, urological, gynaecological, obstetrical, paediatric, otolaryngologic & ophthalmologic, dermatologic diseases & diseases of the nervous systems, as well as treatment of acute abdominal diseases, reduction of body weight, abstinence from smoking & drinking, etc. Many stimulation methods, such as Ear-AP, needle embedding therapy, point injection, bloodletting, laser-AP, Ear-plaster & pressing therapy, etc. are introduced. Part 2 describes experiences of surgical operation & endoscopy under Ear-APA. Part 3 deals with Earpoint-diagnosis, & the clinical application of Earpoints in the diagnosis of cancers, coronary diseases, cholelithiasis, hepatitis, tertian malaria, etc. Part 4 discusses the correlation between the morphology & function of Earpoints. It discusses the relationship between Earpoints & visceral function, & main development in clinical therapy, diagnosis & mechanism of Ear-AP, including the results of studies on reactions of Earpoints during disorders of the body & viscera, reactions of viscera during stimulation of Earpoints & their transmission routes. Based on the analysis of the history & current status of research on Ear-AP, the author emphasises the necessity of attaching importance at the same time to prophylaxis & treatment of serious diseases & standardisation of nomenclature. Suggestions in this regard are made.

50#Chen JL; Chen DZ; Guo DX (1987) [Repair of inguinal hernia under AP anaesthesia]. WFAS 1st Conf (Eng):125. 34 cases of inguinal hernia were operated under APA with good results; there were no relapses during 1-3 yr follow-up. Points used for EAPA were SP06 bilateral + peri-incisional points. Needles were connected to a G6805 EAP stimulator with continuous wave. Excellent 56%, good 32%, poor 12%. After surgery, the patients were ready to walk around. That is beneficial to their early recovery. The wound healed very well in 100% of cases.

51#Chen JY (1988) [Acute mastitis treated by cutaneous AP: Report of 134 cases]. Xinjiang TCM (2):45, 34. Invasion of the exterior pathogens, which are retained & turned into masses, Stasis of LV Qi, Heat in the ST Channel, or Obstruction of Channels, cause acute mastitis. The writer applied the cutaneous needle to stimulate the sacral area, nape area & painful area on the breasts. A medium tapping technique & a frequency of 3 time/second were given. Curative effects: 100 of the cases were cured.

52#Chen WC (1984) [Brief remarks on AP therapy based on the principle of the same disease with different treatments]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust (3):19-20. This is a report of 2 cases of the same disease treated with different methods of AP. Case 1: male, 15 yr-old, with enuresis of the Syndrome of KI-Yang Xu & dysfunction of BL. Points: CV04, SP06, PC06, GB34. Twirling Bu Fa-Xie Fa was used & needle was retained 15 min. The patient was cured after 3 sessions. After 4 more sessions, the therapeutic effect was enhanced. Case 2: male, 14 yr-old, with enuresis of the Syndrome of SP-Xu & disturbance of Qi in the Middle-Jiao. Points: BL20, ST36, GV20, CV03, BL28. Twirling Bu Fa-Xie Fa was used & the needle was retained for 15 min. The patient was cured after 12 sessions.

53#Chen Y (1993) AP treatment of functional defective ejaculation: a report of 70 cases. JTCM Mar 13(1):10-12. Dept of AP, Moxibustion & Massage, Fujian TCM College, Fuzhou, PRC. No abstract online.

54#Chen YD (1984) [A preliminary study on catgut embedding at point SP06 to induce ovulation]. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 4 (9):521-522, 514. This paper presents 24 cases treated since 1974, among which 18 are classified as functional sterility, the other 6 as secondary amenorrhoea. Through regular measurement of BBT & endometrial biopsy, all 24 patients were diagnosed as anovulatory. Catgut embedding at SP06 had good therapeutic effect. 18/22 cases that were followed up ovulated, & 16 became pregnant. The treatment of another 4 cases with amenorrhoea had no effect. Catgut embedding at point SP06 not only induced ovulation, but also showed therapeutic effect on PCOS. It has an action similar of Clomiphene in inducing ovulation, but no side effects to that of the latter. Owing to the limited number of cases the rates of ovulation & pregnancy cannot be worked out at present, but clinical observation shows that catgut embedding at point SP06 is an ideal therapy to induce ovulation. It is simple & handy, with no side effect or danger of over-stimulation. Catgut embedding can regulate the function of ovary for a long period of time, but the mechanism awaits further study.

54a#Chen Z; Chen L (1991) The treatment of enuresis with scalp AP. JTCM Mar 11(1):29-30. Linhai City Hospital of TCM, Zhejiang Province, PRC.

55#Chen ZH (1989) [AP in the treatment of traumatic paraplegia: Report of 150 cases]. Tianjin TCM 1989; (5):5-6 . Before AP, ask patient to urinate. Main Points: 1-2 GV points above & below the traumatic level; or 1-2 X_35 (Huatojiaji) Points above below the traumatic level between spinous processes. Puncture perpendicularly to a depth of 1.5-2.5" & lift & thrust the needles slowly & evenly. If a sensation of break-through is perceived suddenly, or a lightening sensation occurs in the external urethral orifice, the anus, & lower extremities, stop needling immediately to avoid damage to the spinal cord. Helper Points: CV04 (or CV03), ST25, BL54, BL37, BL40, BL60, ST31, ST32, ST42, ST36, GB34, GB39. Needle perpendicularly; lift & thrust coordinated with twisting-rotating. CV03, CV04 may be selected alternately. Depth of AP, 1.5-2". Results: Basically cured, 31 cases; notably effective, 36 cases; improved, 79 cases; ineffective, 4 cases. Total effective rate, 97%.

56#Chen ZW (1988) [Scalp AP therapy: Report of 4 cases]. J Zhejiang TCM Coll 12(2):54. 1. Hemiplegia after apoplexy. Main points: Take middle line of vertex, anterior oblique line of vertex-temporal, middle line of forehead with acupoints 3-5 in number on the limbs. After 2 courses of treatment, free movements resumed. 2. Enuresis in children. Take middle line of vertex, needle retained intermittently for 2 h. Treatment was stopped after 2 courses of therapy (15 sessions/course). Follow-up studies over 3 mo showed no longer enuresis. 3. Acute sprain of the back. Take upper middle line of occiput & upper-lateral line of occiput. After 2 trials of treatment free movement resumed. 4. Perarthritis of the shoulder joint. Puncture the point 2/5 of the way along the anterior oblique line of vertex-temporal, in addition another puncture at the Ashi / tender point of the shoulder. After 2 trials of treatment, free movement resumed.

57#Cheng PT, Wong MK, Chang PL (1998) A therapeutic trial of AP in neurogenic bladder of spinal cord injured patients - a preliminary report. Spinal Cord Jul 36(7):476-480. 80 cases with spinal cord injury (SCI) & neurogenic bladder were studied. 28 (70%) cases in the control group & 32 (80%) cases in the EAP group achieved ultimately balanced voiding & were selected for further analysis. The AP group received EAP at 4 points: CV03, CV04, & bilateral BL32 + conventional intermittent catheterisation program (ICP). The control group underwent conventional bladder training program with ICP only. The time of achieving balanced voiding was significantly shorter with EAP than in the control group: 57.1+22.5 vs 85.2+27.4 d (p<.005) for upper motor neurone lesions, & 55.4+22.6 vs 83.4+26.1 d (p<.01) for lower motor neurone lesions. However, there was almost no difference between upper motor neurone lesions & lower motor neurone lesions. When AP commenced was also a factor to influence the results. Those who received AP <3 wk after injury had a significantly shorter interval to achieve a balanced bladder, as compared to those who received AP 3 wk after injury (46.6+13.2 vs 65.8+15.4 d, p<.005). AP may be beneficial in the management of neurogenic bladder of SCI; the earlier the patient received EAP therapy, the sooner the bladder balanced. However, AP was not useful in complete spinal cord injury, either with pronounced detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia in upper motor neurone lesion or with persistent areflexic bladder in lower motor neurone lesion.

58#Chi ZR (1987) [Prostatitis treated by He-Ne laser-AP: Report of 30 cases]. Shandong JTCM (4):13. 30 cases among the group were treated with the He-Ne Laser made in the Weihai Medical Instrument Factory. The fibre diameter of the He-Ne Laser was 50/125 microns, & the efferent power of ending was 1.8 mW. A special needle with an optic fibre inside was inserted from CV01 into the prostate under the index finger, which was inserted into the anus. The treatment was given once/d, & each treatment lasted 20 min. Four treatments were as a course. 19 cases recovered, 10 improved. The total effective rate was 96%.

59#Chien CH, Li SH, Shen CL (1991) The ovarian innervation in the dog: a preliminary study for the base for EAP. J Auton Nerv Syst Sep; 35 (3):185-192. Dept of Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng-Kung Univ, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC. The origin of the canine ovarian sensory & sympathetic nerves was studied by applying horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to HRP (WGA-HRP) to the ovarian stroma & into the ovarian bursa. HRP/WGA-HRP positive neurones were found bilaterally in the dorsal root ganglia of T10 to L4 segment with the majority located in T13 to L2. In sympathetic paravertebral ganglia, labelled neurones were distributed bilaterally in ganglia from T11 to L4 with the majorities located in segments T13 to L2. Both distributions show ipsilateral predominance. Labelled prevertebral neurones were mainly located in the aorticorenal ganglion, ovarian ganglia & caudal mesenteric ganglion. No labelled neurones were found in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, nodose ganglia or sacral segment from S1 to S3. This study provides the possible morphological basis of EAP concerning the somatovisceral reflex of the ovary.

60#Chu CY (1985) [Selection of medical records from Dr. Yang Jiebing's patients]. Sichuan TCM 3(5):37-38. This paper contains 5 case records by Yang Jiebin concerning acroparaesthesia, prolonged penile erection with spontaneous emission, deviation of the eye & mouth, pain in the hypochondrium & pain in the waist & the lower extremities by cold-wetness evil.

61#Collet D, Chameaud J, Baudet JH, Bossy J (1985) [AP in obstetrics - Article in French]. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet Jan; 80 (1):25-31. AP has been used in China as a treatment modality for 1000 yr & is becoming increasingly important in the western world. Through a special effect on the reticular formation, AP is becoming a first choice among the various methods available to relieve pain, especially in the pregnant woman. It can be useful, in fact, during the three periods of a pregnancy: before delivery: it can effect all the functional & psychiatric problems a pregnant woman may develop; during delivery: there is a definite analgesic & oxytocic effect; after delivery: it can be beneficial in all difficulties with breast feeding. Acupoints used in obstetrics are not very numerous. There are approximately 30 that are located along the body Channels or on the ear.

62#Crocetti E, Crotti N, Feltrin A, Ponton P, Geddes M, Buiatti E (1998) The use of complementary therapies by breast cancer patients attending conventional treatment. Eur J Cancer Feb; 34(3):324-8. U.O. di Epidemiologia, CSPO, Azienda Ospedaliera Careggi, Firenze, Italy. The aim of this study was to measure the proportion & characteristics of complementary therapy (CT) users among female breast cancer patients receiving conventional treatment. 473 women who had received surgical intervention for breast cancer in the year of diagnosis were sent a questionnaire for completion, & 242 responded. CT had been used by 16.5% after cancer diagnosis, only 8.7% before. The most commonly used CTs were homeopathy, manual healing method, herbalism & AP. The main reason for using CTs was physical distress. Only a minority was searching for psychological support. 24 users were satisfied with these treatments, & 66.7% would suggest them. Users were significantly younger, more educated, & previous users of CTs than non-users. Adjusting each variable for the effect of the others, only previous use had an independent effect on increasing the probability of being users after cancer diagnosis.

63#Cui SY (1986) [Treatment of epididymal stasis after vasoligation with audio-freqency therapy applied on the points]. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 6(2):89 An Audio-frequency Instrument, Model NY-2, with adjustable frequencies 50-500 Hz. & 50x15x1 mm lead-plate electrodes, with a 60x20 mm lining, were used. Two electrode protocols were used once/d, 10 d/course: (a) In Course 1, two electrodes placed symmetrically at bilateral ST30-LV12-LV11 along both sides of the genitals (200 Hz, 20 mA); (b) In Course 2, two electrodes were placed along the courses of CV, Chongmai & KI Channels at CV01 + CV03-K112 (200 Hz, 20-30 mA). Protocols (a) & (b) were alternated between courses, using the principle of combination of related points. The intensity used in the 3rd course depended upon the patients' conditions, but the maximal intensity was kept <40 mA. 10/11 cases were cured.

64#Dai XJ (1990) Postoperative pain treated by Ear-AP: Analysis of 94 cases. J Nanjing Coll TCM 6(2):42-43. 47 patients operated on abdomen, breast, neck & perineum were included in this group. AP was used at Earpoints Shenmen, LV; helper points were: in appedectomy add Appendix; hernia repair add External genitalia; cholecystectomy add GB; hiccup add Diaphragm; hypertension add Adrenal. Sterilise Earpoints; tape on dried Vaccaria Seeds & press for 5-10 min, once every 30 min, 2-3 times, & when pain occurred. Control group: 47 cases got Dolantin, i/m. Of 38/47 cases treated by Ear-AP were markedly better, 4/47 effective, & 5/47 not effective. Recovery of intestinal peristalsis by pressing Earpoints increased more markedly than in the Dolantin group.

65#Darenkov AF; Balchii-ool AA; Shemetov VD; Troitskii OA; Kuznetsov VM (1993) AP in the combined treatment of pyelonephritis. Urologiia i Nefrofogiia Mar-Apr(2):10-12. Pyelonephritis causes problems in practical uronephrology; the main clinical treatments aim to enhance the patient's resistance, KI blood flow & urodynamics. As AP was said to meet the above requirements, it was used in a combination treatment of 102 pyelonephritis cases (51 acute & 51 chronic) with intact KI function. Radionuclide renography showed a positive trend in the secretion & urodynamics of the upper urinary tract in 50% of the cases. Dynamic nephroscintigraphy gave a positive response in 60% of cases versus 25% in those treated without AP. AP promoted earlier recovery or remission, reduced the scope of chemotherapy & gave good short- & long-term response. AP is recommended for application in urological & nephrological practice.

66#de Aloysio D, Penacchioni P (1992) Control of morning sickness in early pregnancy by acupressure at PC06. Obstet Gynecol Nov; 80 (5):852-854. Dept of Obs&Gyn, Bologna Univ, Italy. They evaluated the antiemetic effect of acupressure at PC06. 60 women in early pregnancy were entered into a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial. During a 12-d period, organised in four steps of 3 d each, the women were divided into two homogeneous groups to test the effectiveness of unilateral & bilateral acupressure. Acupressure gave in a significantly lower frequency of morning sickness compared with placebo treatment. >60% positive effect was found with unilateral & bilateral acupressure, compared with an approximately 30% positive effect of placebo acupressure. Changing from unilateral to bilateral pressure on PC06 caused no significant improvement. No noteworthy side effects occurred. Acupressure on PC06 relieves morning sickness. Randomised controlled trial.

67#Deng CL (1988) [Clinical achievements of treating bladder diseases by AP & moxibustion]. Chin AP Moxibust 8(2):48-50. Current experience in treating bladder disease by AP & moxibustion was summarised. They are the best way to cure enuresis, retention of urine due to varied causes, inflammation of the urinary system, & bladder & urethral stones. Prostatectomy, i/v pyelography, & pyelolithotomy performed under APA discussed.

68#Donchenko VS; Kiverov SV; Lants GI; Uramaev FR; Samoilov VA (1991) [Pharmacological stimulation of AP points for analgesia in patients with gynaecologic diseases in the postoperative period]. Akush Ginekol Mosk May 5:69-70. No abstract online.

69#Dong XQ (1985) [Current status of AP & moxibustion therapy of gynaecological & obstetric diseases]. Zhejiang JTCM 20(6):286-288. This is a summary of recent developments of acupuncture & moxibustion in the treatment of various gynaecological & obstetrical diseases from 1980 to 1984. The diseases include dysmenorrhoea, acute mastitis, leukoplakia vulvae, lactation deficiency & lactifuge, threatened abortion, artificial abortion, induced parturition & oxytocic parturition, postpartum urinary retention, parturition pain, etc.

70#Dundee JW, Ghaly RG, Bill KM, Chestnutt WN, Fitzpatrick KT, Lynas AG (1989) Effect of stimulation of the PC06 antiemetic point on postoperative nausea & vomiting. Br J Anaesth Nov; 63 (5):612-618. Dept of Anaesthetics, Queen's Univ of Belfast, Ireland. The antiemetic action of stimulation of PC06 has been studied in women, premedicated with nalbuphine 10 mg, undergoing minor gynaecological operations under methohexitone-nitrous oxide-oxygen anaesthesia. Invasive AP, manual or electrical at 10 Hz, for 5 min at the time of administration of the premedication markedly reduced the incidence of vomiting & nausea in the first 6 h after operation, compared with untreated controls. This did not occur with stimulation of a "dummy" AP point outside the recognised AP Channels. Non-invasive methods (stimulation via a conducting stud or by pressure) were equally as effective as invasive AP during the early postoperative period. However, both these non-invasive approaches were less effective than invasive AP in the 1-6 h postoperative period, although each was as effective as two standard antiemetics (cyclizine 50 mg, metoclopramide 10 mg). In view of the total absence of any side effects in more than 500 AP procedures, the clinical applications of this finding are worthy of further study. Randomised controlled trial.

71#Dundee JW; Chestnutt WN; Ghaly RG (1986) Traditional Chinese AP: a potentially useful antiemetic?. Br Med J [Clin Res] 293 (6547):583-584. Two consecutive studies were done to evaluate the effectiveness of AP as an antiemetic when used with opioid premedication in patients undergoing minor gynaecological operations. In the first study 25 of the 50 patients underwent AP immediately after premedication with 100 mg meptazinol, the rest receiving the drug alone, & in the second 75 patients were allocated randomly to one of three groups: a group receiving 10 mg nalbuphine & AP, a group receiving premedication & dummy AP, & a group receiving premedication alone. Manual needling for 5 min at PC06 significantly reduced perioperative nausea & vomiting in the 50 patients who underwent AP compared with the 75 patients who received no AP. These findings cannot be explained, but it is recommended that the use of AP as an antiemetic should be explored further.

72#Engel K; Gerke-Engel G; Gerhard I; Bastert G (1992) [Foetomaternal macrotransfusion after successful internal version from breech presentation by moxibustion]. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd Apr 52(4):241-243. Univ-Frauenklinik Heidelberg, Germany. In a primigravida with a fundal/anterior wall placenta, a successful cephalic version was noted at 39 wk after repeated moxa use at BL67. Since routine foetal heart rate monitoring showed a sinusoidal pattern with severe decelerations, immediate Caesarean section was performed. Foetomaternal macrotransfusion of circa 300 ml of blood was found. In view of this complication, possible risks of the method are discussed. Moxibustion is not suitable as self-therapy without close medical follow-up.

73#Fan MF; Deng CL (1994) [Enuresis treated with irradiation of He-Ne laser on acupoints in 212 cases]. Chin AP Moxibust 14(5):245-246. They treated 212 cases of enuresis using He-Ne laser-AP at CV04, SP06 & Yeniaodian (EX) as Main Points & CV03 as a Helper point. 204/212 cases were effective (96%). Statistical analysis showed that the effect was not markedly different with variation of ages & the course of disease (P>.05).

74#Fang SH (1985) [EAP therapy of enuresis: Report of 150 cases]. Hubei JTCM (6):37. EAP was used at CV06, CV04 as the main points for enuresis, & ST36 & SP06 as Helper points. The needle was punctured from CV06 through CV04 to CV03 until Deqi spread to the external genitalia. A Helper point was used also. The needles were connected to a 6805 apparatus with high-frequency & continuous wave current, & retained for 30 min. Treatment was once/d for 10-15 d/course, with an interval of 3-5 d between courses, if needed. 79/150 cases were cured, 58 improved & 13 failed.

75#Fang YA (1986) [Acupuncture in the treatment of menoxenia, menalgia & leucorrhoea]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 5(2):20-22. To treat menstrual disturbance & menorrhalgia: For Shi or Heat syndrome, CV06, SP10 & SP06; For Xu & Cold syndrome, CV04, KI03 & SP06. In both cases, helper points are BL15, BL18, BL20, B23, LV05, LU10, ST36, PC06 & LV03. During menstruation, the main points were applied with Xie Fa for Shi syndrome, or reinforcing method (Bu Fa) for Xu syndrome. After menstruation, the helper points may be applied. For leukorrhagia: in Shi & Heat syndrome, BL24, BL28 & SP05 as Group A, & GB26, SP09 + SP06 as Group B points. Alternate group A & B. For Xu & Cold syndrome, BL20, BL23 & SP06 as group A, & CV04, CV03 & KI03 as group B. Alternate group A & B.

76#Fava A, Bongiovanni A, Frassoldati P (1980) [AP therapy of hypogalactia - Article in Italian]. Minerva Med Dec 22; 71(51):3747-52. Reference is made to the current tendency to reappraise breast feeding in the light of both medical & social-cultural considerations, & attention is called to the current lack of sound treatments for hypogalactia. The physiopathological mechanisms underlying this condition are examined, & an account is given of results obtained with AP reflexotherapy in this field. The technique is effective, innocuous & well accepted.

77#Fei TF; Song XC; Wang SY (1988) [Effects of AP on levels of plasma oestradiol, progesterone & testosterone in early follicular phase in healthy women of childbearing age women]. Chin AP Moxibust 8 (3):39-42, 38. With RIA, the authors observed experimentally the influence of AP at point Baihui (GV20) on the contents of E2, progesterone & T in early plasma of follicle in 36 cases of healthy women of childbearing age. Progesterone & T were markedly raised but E2 was slightly increased. The authors think that the action of AP is based on regulating Yin & Yang; to enhance the adaptability of internal milieu through endocrine system is the main mechanism of AP in preventing & treating irregular menstruation caused by intrauterine device.

79#Feng SH (1993) [Ear-plaster treatment for 120 cases of dysmenorrhoea]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 12 (3):117. Earpoints used were Uterus, Endocrine, Jiaogan (MA-AH 7), Ovary, Subcortex & Shenmen, combined with LV for Xue Stasis due to Qi Xu; with SP for Stasis of Cold-Damp; with KI for Qi-Xue Xu. Sterilise Earpoints; tape on dried Vaccaria Seeds & have patient press 4-6 times/d, 5-7 min/time. 2 d later, the contralateral ear was used in the same way as mentioned above. One cycle of menstruation constituted a therapeutic course. 44 cases were cured, 52 had marked improvement, 19 improvement & 5 no effect.

80#Fischl F; Riegler R; Biegelmayer Ch (1984) [AP therapy of subfertility]. Dtsch Z Akupunkt 27 (3):53-56. Also: Fischl F, Riegler R, Bieglmayer C, Nasr F, Neumark J. (1984) Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd Aug; 44 (8):510-512. [Modification of semen quality by AP in subfertile males - Article in German]. Our first attempt in treating subfertility by AP was carried out on 28 males. The results from experiences in veterinary medicine encouraged us to try AP. Each patient received a total of 10 treatments for a period of 3 wk. Several spermiograms were made after diagnosing subfertility. We checked spermiograms & hormone levels before & after AP. Total count, concentration & motility were evaluated. In all cases we observed a statistically significant improvement of sperm quality. We intend to continue AP therapy in subfertile males for insemination or intercourse on time of the ovulation of their female partners.

81#Flaws B (1986) Leucorrhoea & vaginitis: Their differential diagnosis & treatment. Am J AP 14 (4):306-316. The views of several different authors are compared with the schema of the Chinese patterns of disharmony covering leucorrhoea & vaginitis. Also, AP therapy & herbal protocols for each of the patterns are discussed. Also described are the Syndromes that most commonly cause leucorrhoea & vaginitis, & comprehensive treatment plans for western patients including diet & lifestyle modification.

82#Flaws B (1989) Grasping the essence: a short discussion of spermatorrhoea & the logic of TCM. Am J AP 17 (2):153-158. In this paper the author discusses Damp Heat in the Lower Jiao as the most common cause of spermatorrhoea in young American men & the fact that this Pattern of Disharmony is largely overlooked in the current English-language literature. The author further discusses the necessity of understanding disease mechanisms in order to avoid misinterpreting the significance of individual signs & symptoms.

83#Fouques Duparc V, Herlicoviez M, Levy G (1979) [The induction of parturition by EAP: A new technique & one that is thirty centuries old; a preliminary study - Article in French]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 8 (8):755-760. Ten patients had their parturitions induced by EAP. This method was successful in starting parturition each time. Eight women delivered normally vaginally. One had a caesarean & had uterine contractions without dilatation of the cervix. EAP has also allowed us to accelerate parturition.

84#Frygner K (1994) [AP during childbirth]. Jordmorbladet 5:20-21. In Norwegian. No abstract online.

85#Fu XS (1994) [Clinical application & general research situation of AP-induced painless parturition]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu (AP Res) 19 (3/4):178-179. In this article, the author reviewed clinical application of AP therapy & its general situations of experimental research in painless parturition in the past 10 yr. It has got fairly good effects & satisfied progress in clinical application & is thought to be safe, effective & painless. There is no harmful effects to parturients & their babies.

86#Gao DK; Su JM; Liu CA (1986) Efficacy of AP at GB21 in 393 cases of acute mastitis. JTCM 6(1):19-20. 393 cases of acute mastitis were successfully treated by AP at ipsilateral GB21, using a 28-30 gauge, 2" needle, inserted with the Xie Fa to a depth of 0.5-0.8". Fast twisting & twirling of the needle (no lifting & thrusting) until Deqi was felt at the shoulder, breast or arm gives strong stimulation. The manipulation was continued for 3-5 min. All 393 cases were in the inflammatory stage. 82% were cured in 1-3 d & total effective rate was 99%. Early cases are particularly suitable for AP therapy.

87#Gao H, Ji S, Chen B (1995) [EAP promotes enlargement of adrenals & enhances level of blood cortisol in ovariectomised rats - Article in Chinese]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu (AP Res) 20 (2):55-58. Dept of Neurobiology, Shanghai Medical Univ. The present article reports EAP with special acupoints may promote the enlargement of bilateral adrenals & enhance the level of blood cortisol in ovariectomised (OV) rats. The mean of adrenal weights (X+SE, mg) were: OV+EAP group 71+2.1, OV group 57.4+4.7, EAP group 57.6+1.1 & control group 54+2.8 respectively. As a self control, the detection of blood cortisol contents was performed in the same animals before & after ovariectomy. Before ovariectomy the contents of blood cortisol in the rats were 3.27+0.7 micrograms/100ml before EAP & 3.63+0.9 micrograms/100ml after EAP. No significant difference of blood cortisol level was found before & after EAP. After ovariectomy, the level of blood cortisol increased from 4.38+0.62 to 6.02+0.77 micrograms/100ml after EAP (p<.01). No similar effect of EAP at control acupoints in OV rats was seen. EAP may regulate abnormal endocrine function; the effect of EAP has relative specificity of acupoint.

88#Gao HR (1985) [Functional uterine haemorrhage treated by Earpoint pressure with vegetable seeds]. Chin AP Moxibust 5 (5):45. Points: Uterus, Ovary, Fallopian tube, Pelvis, Helper points: Subcortex, Endocrine, Adrenal, Shenmen, Brainstem, Brain point, LV, SP, KI. Disinfect the relevant points of the ear, & then fix the Rapeseeds against the points with adhesive tape. For severe cases, treat every 2 d. After 3-5 treatments, the treatment was changed to 2 times/wk. The ears were treated alternately. The therapy should last 1-4 wk, then you could get the effect.

89#Gao XG (1984) [Observation on the treatment of enuresis by AP on CV04 & SP06]. 2nd Natl Symp AP-Mox & APA (Beijing):93-94. In TCM theory, enuresis is related to abnormal function of the three Foot-Yin Channels (LV, SP, KI), the CV, TH, SI & BL Channels. So CV04 (Mu point of SI Channel & the intersection of three Foot-Yins & CV Channel) & SP06 (intersection of three Foot-Yins) were selected. 230 cases, 4-20 yr-old, 144 male, 89 female, were treated. AP needles, 32 gauge, were used. After point-sterilisation 74% alcohol, needles were inserted rapidly, with moderate stimulation until Deqi; needles were retained for 20-30 min. Treatment was twice/wk for 10 times/course. 92/230 cases recovered completely, 29 improved markedly (enuresis decreased by 80-90%), 78 improved (enuresis decreased by 50%) & 31 failed. Total effective rate was 86%.

90#Ge SH; Meng FY; Xu BR (1988) AP treatment in 102 cases of chronic prostatitis. JTCM (ENG) 8 (2):99-100. AP at BL35 & BL23 was used to treat 102 cases of chronic prostatitis. Strong Xie Fa was used with no needle retention. Treat every 1-2 d, 10 times/course. After treatment, 46% were cured, 20% greatly improved, 18% improved & 16% were ineffective.

91#Geirsson G; Wang YH; Lindstr÷m S; Fall M (1993) Traditional AP & electrostimulation of the posterior tibial nerve: A trial in chronic interstitial cystitis. Scand J Urol Nephrol 27(1):67-70. Dept of Surgery, Sahlgrenska sjukhuset, Univ of G÷teborg, Sweden. A prospective study on the symptomatic effect of traditional Chinese AP treatment & TENS of the tibial nerve in cases with interstitial cystitis is presented. There was no difference in voiding frequency, mean voided volume, maximal voided volume or visual analogue scale symptom scores before or after treatment with either TENS or AP. Only one patient improved subjectively & objectively after AP for a short period of time. Even though the present material involves a small group of patients, it seems that the 2 methods, as applied in this study, have very limited effect in cases with interstitial cystitis.

92#Gerhard I, Postneek F (1988) [Possibilities of therapy by Ear-AP in female sterility - Article in German]. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd Mar; 48 (3):165-171. Abteilung fur gynakologische Endokrinologie der Univ.-Frauenklinik Heidelberg. After a differentiated endocrine & gynaecologic diagnosis Ear-AP was used in 15 women with oligoamenorrhoea & 12 women with corpus luteal insufficiency who had come for hormone consultation because of sterility. In both groups the subsequent incidence of pregnancy was comparable to that achieved by drug therapy. The greatest successes were in cases of amenorrhoea with positive progesterone test & normal basal hormones or hyperandrogenaemia, while there was less improvement in cases with negative progesterone test, anorexia & luteal insufficiency. Even though it is time-consuming, AP deserves to be more widely used, considering the lack of side effects, the low abortion rate & its positive influence on the patient's general condition.

93#Gerhard I; Postneek F (1992) Ear-AP in the treatment of female infertility. Gynaecol Endocrinol 6(3):171-181. Dept for Gynaecological Endocrinology & Reproduction, Women's Hospital, Univ of Heidelberg, Germany. In a German study, after a full gynaecologic-endocrine work-up, 45 infertile women (oligoamenorrhoea (n=27); luteal insufficiency (n=18)) were treated with Ear-AP. Results were compared to those of 45 women who received hormone treatment. Both groups were matched for age, duration of infertility, body mass index, previous pregnancies, menstrual cycle & tubal patency. There was a fractionally higher birth rate in the group treated with AP (22/45) than in the group treated with hormones (20/45). The researchers noted that the AP group experienced additional health benefits & no adverse side effects. Ear-AP seems to be a valuable alternative therapy for female infertility due to hormonal disorders, being more effective & with no side effects.

94#Ghaly RG; Fitzpatrick KT; Dundee JW (1987) Antiemetic studies with traditional Chinese AP: A comparison of manual needling with ES & commonly used antiemetics. Anaesthesia 42 (10):1108-1110. EAP (low frequency, 10 Hz) for 5 min to an AP needle at PC06 is as effective as manual needling in the reduction of emetic sequels in women premedicated with nalbuphine 10 mg for a minor gynaecological under a standard anaesthetic. Both were slightly, but not significantly, better than the antiemetic properties of cyclizine 50 mg.

95#Gieron C, Wieland B, von der Laage D, Tolksdorf W (1993) [Acupressure in the prevention of postoperative nausea & vomiting - Article in German]. Anaesthesist Apr; 42 (4):221-226. Klinik fur Anasthesiologie, Med Fak, RWTH Aachen. Despite modern anaesthetic procedures, postoperative nausea & vomiting are still the side-effects most often mentioned: acupressure is reported to be an additional method of preventing these effects in minor gynaecological surgery. We investigated the effectiveness of acupressure in patients undergoing gynaecological operations of longer duration (6-8 h) in a real acupressure group compared to a placebo group. Before beginning the study we investigated a control group to find out the frequency of emesis. In the worst case of nausea that we encountered, 80% in the 0-6 h postoperative period, the number of random samples for the acupressure & placebo groups was calculated (30 patients in each group). The error for alpha was established at 5% & the reduction of nausea was 50%. METHODS. The female patients were 18 to 65 yr old (ASA group I & II). Acupressure was carried out by fastening small metal bullets at the point PC06 to each forearm by means of an elastic bandage. The bullets were left there for 24 h. The premedication anaesthesia, postoperative analgesia, & antiemetic treatment were standardised. During a 24-h period we investigated the incidence of nausea & vomiting. The anthropometric data, the duration of surgery & the amount of postoperative analgesia were comparable between the three groups. Real acupressure obtained a statistically significant & relevant reduction in nausea up to the 6th postoperative hour in comparison with the placebo group (p=.03). Nausea was reduced from 53% in the placebo group to 23% in the acupressure group. Acupressure effectively prevented nausea & vomiting without any side-effects in patients under longer gynaecological surgery, & in chemotherapy-induced nausea & vomiting. It is a valuable addition to the prevention of postoperative nausea & vomiting. Further studies should be conducted to investigate this possibility further.

96#Ginzburg LI, Zharkin NA (1985) [Status of the breasts after reflexotherapy of chronic recurrent salpingo-oophoritis - Article in Russian]. Akush Ginekol (Mosk) Jul; (7):32-4.

97#Gong D; Liang C; Lai X; Lai X (1993) [Effects of different AP manipulation on plasma oestradiol (E2), testosterone (T) & cortisol (C) in patients with KI Xu]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu 18(4):253-256. Dept of AP & Moxibustion, Guangzhou Coll of TCM. Observation was made on the effect of different AP manipulation on plasma E2, T, E2/T & C in 78 patients with KI Xu (Deficiency). Both reinforcing manipulation (Bu Fa) & reducing manipulation (Xie Fa) lowered the level of E2 & T in women. Xie Fa, but not Bu Fa, lowered E2/T index, & there was a significant difference (p<.05) between the Xie Fa & Bu Fa groups in E2/T, but no significance between the men's groups. The level of C was decreased by Xie Fa but not by Bu Fa. The different manipulation effects are different on the level of sex hormones in women & the C level in patients with KI Xu.

98#Gourion A (1987) [3 case reports with discussion]. Rev Fr Med Tradit Chin (121):75-81. Case 1, female, 21 yr, eczema since youth. Main points: SP10 & GV14; with lesion at the elbow, add TH10, TH03, TH05; lesion in the neck, add TH15, GB21, GB20, ST25; frequent prolonged & irregular menstruation with dysmenorrhoea, use CV17; alternation of constipation & diarrhoea, add CV12 & SP06. Case 2, male, 57 yr, pain in neck, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, fingers & toes, diagnosed as Fengpi (Arthralgia due to Wind). AP BL17 & SP10 with Bu Fa, & GV16, GB20 & BL12 with Xie Fa. Case 3, male, 76 yr, constipation & mild vision disorder for many years, ameliorated if fasting & less food. Points: ST25, CV04, CV12, PC06, LI04, LI02, TH06, ST36, ST40, SP06, LV01; Pricking & pulsating headache Z_09, GV23, LI04 with Xie Fa; hypertrophy of the prostate since 66 yr of age, Moxibustion at BL23, CV04, or add KI06, ST36, & SP06.

99#Grochmal SA, Ostrzenski A, Connant C, Garratt D (1996) Seven-Year Experience with Office Microlaparoscopy & Hysteroscopy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc Aug; 3 (4, Supplement):S16-S17. Dept of Obs&Gyn, Howard Univ College of Medicine, 2041 Georgia Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20060.[Record supplied by publisher]. Since 1989 more than 1200 office-based endoscopies have been performed at our facility. Visualisation was initially achieved with 1.6-mm optical catheters, but recently, we have used larger-diameter fibre & glass rod endoscopes. Ancillary instruments progressed from 5- to 2-mm diameters, although we punctured occasionally with cannulas up to 20-mm. Anaesthesia remained consistent, with local infiltration followed by conscious sedation given by an on-site anaesthesiologist. Lately, alternative methods of anaesthesia including hypnosis & AP have had some initial success. To date, we have performed 156 tubal ligations, 293 diagnostic laparoscopies, 151 treatments of endometriosis, 43 ovarian cyst aspirations, 29 adhesiolyses, 263 second-look procedures, 21 ectopic pregnancy removals, 198 diagnostic hysteroscopies, 64 endometrial biopsies, 20 fibroid resections, & 39 endometrial ablations. Patient response has been rewarding, thanks to decreased time off work, decreased cost of procedures to health insurance carriers, & immediate satisfaction from the diagnosis & treatment of their conditions.

100#Gu XD (1994) Clinical report on treatment of postoperative urinary retention with AP at 4-Liao (BL32 & BL33) & SP06 acupoints. Am J AP 22(4):349-351. The Baliao (Four Liao) points are BL31-BL34, over the 4 sacral foramina. This reports on 12 cases with postoperative urinary retention treated with AP at 2 of the 4 Liao, BL32 & BL33, bilaterally + SP06. Treatment was successful in 100% of cases. The treatment methods are safe, easily mastered, effective & without side effects.

101#Guan ZH (1988) [Effects of AP on lactation]. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 8(7):441. Promotion of lactation: LI11, CV17 & ST18. Helper points were SI01, ST36 & LV03. 3-4 points were used each time, once/d with Bu Fa, retaining the needle for 10 min. Moxa was added at CV17 & ST18. 11/42 cases were very effective, 23 effective, & 8 failed. To dry off lactation (Huinai): three Huinai points (at midpoint of spinal process of T4, T5 & T6 respectively), GB37 & GB41 were chosen. One of the 3 Huinai points was used/d; after needle insertion, rotate in a small amplitude 1 min & retain 5 min. Normal Bu Fa-Xie Fa & 5 min needle retaining were used at GB37 & GB41; moxa was added after AP. After moxa, moderate circular flicking 2 times with plum blossom needle was applied from the areola to the periphery. 5/12 cases dried off within 5 d; 3/12 were non-effective.

102#Guillaume G (1992) Postmenopausal osteoporosis & Chinese medicine. Am J AP 20:105-111. Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a major health threat to woman, is described in terms of its energetics according to TCM. Included are prescriptions for treatment of its symptoms with AP & herbal therapy. Research into the prevention & treatment of osteoporosis through the application of these modalities is warranted.

103#Guo CJ; Zhang HY; Gao ZY (1987) [Antagonism of AP with mammary hyperplasia caused by E3]. Shaanxi J Chin Tradit Med 8(11):517. The effect of AP treatment of mammary hyperplasia in our hospital was satisfied. Its mechanism of treatment in the experiment was studied, & the animal model of mammary hyperplasia in rabbit was first established domestically. AP decreased the occurrence of E3-induced mammary hyperplasia in rabbit. The promotion of the sensibility of the E3 receptor may be its mechanism. Also: Guo CJ (1988) Observations on the therapeutic effect of mammary hyperplasia of 500 cases treated by AP. J Chin AP Moxibust [Eng] 1(3-4):87-89. 500 cases of mammary hyperplasia were treated since 1978 (150 outpatients & 350 inpatients). Major points: ST15 bilateral, CV17, LI04 bilateral; in chest group. SI11, GB21, BL18 bilateral, in back group. In LV Fire, LV03 & GB43 were added & LI04 subtracted; in Yin-Xu of LV & KI, KI03 was added & BL18 subtracted; in Xu of Qi-Xue, BL20, ST36 were added & BL18, LI04 subtracted; irregular menstruation, SP06 was added & LI04 subtracted; fullness of chest, TH05 was added & LI04 subtracted. The two groups of points were alternated. AP was once/d with reinforcing method (Bu Fa) in case of Xu & reducing method (Xie Fa) in case of Shi. Needles were retained 30 min, & manipulated 4 times in that time for 10 times/course, with a 3-4 d between courses. Recovery usually came after 3-4 courses. Also: Guo CJ; Zhang WH (1988) JTCM (ENG) 8(3):157-160. Effect of AP treatment in 500 patients of mammary gland hyperplasia. In TCM, mammary hyperplasia is related to functional disorders of the SP & LV induced by anxiety & anger. Since 1978, 500 patients were treated with AP & the curative effects compared with other treatments, including Western medicine, herbal medicine, bean extract or control. The long-term effects of AP were followed-up for 1-5 yr. AP gave good immediate & long-term curative results with little side effects compared with other therapies. The mechanism may relate to improved cellular immunological function & correction of hormonal disturbances. Also: Guo CJ; Zhang WH; Zheng SX (1991) [Clinical observations on mammary hyperplasia treated with EAP & its influence on immune function]. Pap Inter Cong Tradit Med (Beijing '91):135. In recent years we treated 158 in-patients with mammary hyperplasia by EAP & obtained a satisfactory therapeutic effect (The short-term cure rate was 54% & the total effective rate 95%), with no side-effects. On assay of the sex hormones, the E2 level before treatment was apparently higher than in normal subjects, but it was restored to normal after treatment. Experiments on animal models of HMG (rabbits & white rats) induced by hypodermic injection of E2 have proven that AP stimulation was effective in counteracting the model formation. Also AP treatment had a better effect than drug administration in normalising the affected mammary tissues. Elevated concentration of E2 is one of the main causes of HMG & EAP has definite effect in normalising the imbalanced female hormones. The mechanism of EAP treatment for HMG lies in the fact that it lowers the raised E2 in the body, so as to reduce its inhibition on the immune organs & immunocytes, thus strengthen the function of the lymphocytes & accelerate the clearance of the diseased tissues. This study was significant to make further investigation into the AP mechanism & the reduction of the mastocarcinoma morbidity. Also: Guo YM; Guo CJ (1992) [Observation on the therapeutic effect of EAP for 260 cases of mammary hyperplasia]. Chin AP Moxibust 1992; 12(6):293-294. Of 260 cases of mammary hyperplasia treated by EAP, 64% were cured, 18% well improved, 16% improved, & 2% unchanged. The effective rate was 98%. Points: Group 1 ST15, CV17, & LI04; Group 2 SI11, GB21, & BL18, alternating between sessions. AP was once/d, 10 times/course. Most patients were cured or were well improved after 1-3 courses of treatment. Also: Guo CJ, Zhang WH, Zheng SX, Ju D, Zhao C (19??) Clinical observation on efficacy of EAP therapy in mammary hyperplasia & its effect on immunological function. JTCM Dec; 16(4):281-287. Shaanxi College of TCM, Xianyang. We determined the change in immunological function before & after EAP in 44 in-patients with mammary hyperplasia & having the same menstruation date. We also assessed EAP to treat mammary hyperplasia on a rat model. There was decrease of immunological function in mammary hyperplasia; this function was remarkably enhanced by EAP both in human mammary hyperplasia & in the rat model. We presume an inhibitory effect on immunological function exerted by high concentration of E2, & that EAP reversed that. Hence EAP reinforced immunological function. The results of this study are important in exploration of both the pathogenesis of this disease & the mechanism of EAP, & in reducing the incidence of breast carcinoma.

104#Guo CJ; Zhang WH (1987) JTCM 28(1):47-49. [Short-and long-term effect of AP treatment in mammary proliferative diseases: An approach to its mechanism]. Mammary hyperplasia is thought to be a disorder resulting from Stasis of LV-Qi, Xue & Phlegm & Obstruction of Collaterals in the mammary gland. Treatment principle is to soothe LV-Qi & regulate ST-Qi. Points selection: Group 1: ST15 bilateral, CV17 & LI04 bilateral; Group 2: SI11, GB21 & BL18, bilateral. Needle CV17 obliquely outward in 25 degree to 1.5"; needle SI11 horizontally forward to 1.5". Bu Fa is applied for those with Xu-Syndrome, & Xie Fa for Shi-Syndrome. Retain needles for 30 min. Alternate the 2 groups. Treat once/d, 30 times/course. Short-term result in 150 in-patients: 67% were cured, 33% markedly effective, 5% effective & 5% ineffective, the total effective rate was 95%. In 350 out-patients, 37% were cured, 30% markedly effective, 28% effective & 5% ineffective, the total effective rate being 95%. The long-term effect was stable & increased as the period of follow-up lengthened.

105#Hammar M, Frisk J, Grimas O, Hook M, Spetz AC, Wyon Y (1999) AP treatment of vasomotor symptoms in men with prostatic carcinoma: a pilot study. J Urol Mar; 161(3):853-6. Dept Health & Environment, Fac of Health Sciences, Univ of Linkoping, Sweden. Most men who undergo castration for prostatic carcinoma have vasomotor symptoms that usually persist for years. Vasomotor symptoms are elicited from the thermoregulatory centre, possibly due to a decrease in hypothalamic opioid activity induced by low sex steroid concentrations. AP treatment in women, which stimulates hypothalamic opioid activity, alleviates vasomotor symptoms. We report on men treated with AP for relief of vasomotor symptoms after castration therapy. We asked 7 men with vasomotor symptoms due to castration therapy to receive AP treatment for 30 min twice/wk for 2 weeks & once/wk for 10 wk. 6/7 men completed at least 10 weeks of AP therapy & all had a substantial decrease in the number of hot flushes (average 70% after 10 weeks). At 3 months after the last treatment the number of flushes was 50% lower than before therapy. Therapy was discontinued after 10 wk due to a femoral neck fracture in 1 man & after 3 wk due to severe back pain in 1. AP may be a therapeutic alternative in men with hot flushes after castration therapy & merits further evaluation.

106#Hammar M, Nedstrand E, Sandberg M, Wyon Y, Wijma K, Varenhorst E (1997) [AP as an alternative to oestrogen: New therapeutic methods for climacteric problems are tested - Article in Swedish]. Lakartidningen Jun 11; 94 (24):2300-2302. Avdelningen for obstetrik och gynekologi, kvinnokliniken.

107#Han CH; Sun WP (1988) [AP at an extraordinary point in the treatment of 30 cases of chronic prostatitis]. Zhejiang JTCM 23 (6):280. Method: 1. a specific extra point for prostatitis (its name is to be given): it is located midway between point CV01 & the anus. 2. needling manipulation: Xie Fa is used with the needles being retained. An AP needle, 28 gauge, 3-4", is used to give perpendicular insertion for 1.5-2", lift & thrust the needle in a small range for 2-3 times, or twist & rotate the needle. The needle is retained for 20 min before it is removed. This is done once/d, with 10 times as one treatment course. The effects have shown that of 30 cases, 9 are cured, 15 have marked effects, 3 have improvement & 3 do not respond to the treatment.

108#Han RH; Dong Z (1992) [Treatment of 305 cases of chronic prostatitis with AP]. Chin AP Moxibust 12 (2):77-78. The authors treated 305 cases of chronic prostatitis by means of needling BL32 & CV03 with intense stimulation. The treatment was performed once/d & 10 sessions made up one treating course. 2 or 3-d interval was necessary after each course. 62% were markedly effective, 23% were improved, & 15% failed. The total effective rate was 85%. They preliminarily discussed the mechanism of AP in treating chronic prostatitis.

109#Hao DR (1988) [AP therapy of multiple uterine myoma: A case report]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 7(1):41. A female with diagnosed multiple hysteromyoma was treated with AP. Bilateral Y_18 was inserted obliquely, to 1" deep; CV02 & bilateral KI11 were needled vertically to 1" & 0.8" deep respectively. Aim to get Deqi to the perineal region. Bilateral SP06 were used as Helper points to cause Deqi toward thigh. Earpoints bilateral Subcortex were used as Helper points to 0.1-0.2" deep to cause pain sensation. After Deqi, mild Bu Fa-Xie Fa was given for 20 min every 2 d, 10 times/course. After 35 sessions the patient was cured basically.

110#Hao LC (1987) EAP therapy trial for treating infertility in mares. Theriogenology Sept 28(3):301-305. No abstract online.

111#Harmon, D Gardiner, J Harrison, R Kelly A (1999) Acupressure & the prevention of nausea & vomiting after laparoscopy. British J of Anaesthesia Mar 82(3):387-390. The efficacy of currently available antiemetics is poor. Concern with their side effects & the high cost of the newer drugs has led to renewed interest in non-pharmacological methods of treatment. We have studied the efficacy of acupressure at PC06 to prevent nausea & vomiting after laparoscopy, in a double-blind, randomised, controlled study of acupressure vs placebo. We studied 104 cases undergoing laparoscopy & dye investigation. The anaesthetic technique & postoperative analgesia were standardised. Failure of treatment was defined as the occurrence of nausea and/or vomiting within the first 24 h after anaesthesia. Acupressure reduced the incidence of nausea or vomiting from 42% to 19% compared with placebo, with an adjusted risk ratio of 0.24 (95% CI 0.08-0.62; p=.005). Other variables were similar between groups.

112#Hasenpusch E (1988) Treatment of non cyclic young postpartum cows with EAP or Abbovestrol-spiral. Inaugural-Dissertation, Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover (No 41), 99pp. Summary in: English. No abstract online.

113#He JZ; Gu WQ (1988) [Observation on therapeutic effect of laser (Helium-Neon) double light AP for treating infantile enuresis & its influence on the constitution of the patient]. Chin AP Moxibust 8(1):17-19. They used He-Ne laser to treat infantile enuresis. Two irradiators were placed separately over two points, 5 min/point, & 4-6 points once/d, for 10 times/course. Main points included CV01, CV03, SP06 with ST36, GV20, or Ashi points, with Helper points according to clinical symptoms. After 1-3 courses, 47 cases were cured, & 50 improved; total effective rate was 96%. Blood examination was given before & after treatment. Laser AP enhances immune function, remedies anaemia, & is thus harmless to the patient.

114#Hirsh RC1 (1996) Chin Med & Assisted Reproductive Technology for the Modern Couple: Part 1. Adapted from WWW. [Roger C Hirsh, OMD LAc BAc (UK), Dipl NCCA (email: has been working for the last 7 yr to specialise in reproductive health care within the TCM model & to integrate the diverse traditions of TCM & WM in his work with fertility. An Honours graduate of the International Coll of Oriental Med (London, 1976) he received his Doctorate in Oriental Med (1984) with a speciality in Constitutional Med. After a 3000 h Postgrad internship with Master Sehan Kim OMD & Ms Kyo Ok Kim MD PhD, he joined the Centre for Orthomolecular Med in Palo Alto, where he practised AP & Herbal Med for several years as a member of a 6 physician team. Dr Hirsh has served as an adjunct faculty member of the Am Coll of TCM, the California AP Coll & Emperor's Coll of TCM & is one of the founders & is currently chairman of the board of directors of China International Med Univ. He is currently in private practice in Beverly Hills, California, specialising in work with couples who have simple to complex fertility concerns or are preparing to have a family: WebMaster]. / AP & Herbal Therapy are ancient methods used to treat & prevent disease in TCM. These systems are as ancient & effective as any other medical techniques used in the world today. They have been practised consistently for the past 5000 yr in the Orient. Circa 17.5% of the world's population uses AP & herbs as their main form of health care. Although AP has been used in England, France, & Germany for several centuries, only in the past 2 decades have AP & TCM been recognised in the USA. The benefits of AP & TCM in treatment for the infertile couple can be found in early TCM literature. Not only do these techniques assist in regulating the menstrual cycle & invigorating the sperm, but they also serve to enhance the function of the whole body. This "whole body" health approach, in turn, provides a key to unlock unlimited potential in healing. This is especially appropriate for the over 40 couple as it stimulates overall health to effect reproductive health & a reduction of biological age. / PMS, amenorrhoea, endometriosis, blocked fallopian tubes, immune system incongruities, & infertility related hormonal problems yield to many of these Old World (traditional) procedures. Also, herbal formulas that tonify KI-Qi (KI- & adrenal- function), & KI-Jing-Essence are especially useful in raising sperm count & motility. The highly technical & expensive methods used in WM are supported by complimentary TCM procedures & Herbal Med. Complete treatment programs also include a series of Qigong healing energy exercises to enhance Qi-flow in specific Channels, as well as the use of AP, TCM & Herbal Med. These exercises, developed by Chinese Taoists (metaphysicians) >3000 yr ago, stimulate the flow of intrinsic Qi in the body which, in turn, enhance health & benefit organ function. The meditative dance-like movements co-ordinate with specific visualisations & exercise; they oxygenate the blood & simultaneously enhance one's artistic nature. Oriental sexological literature lists specific sexual positions that enhance a man's sperm count & motility as well as regulating a woman's cycle. Currently, studies focused on understanding the effects of these techniques are under way in the USA & Europe. Longevity & regaining a person's youthfulness are key topics. As a way to heighten a couple's fertility, TCM has several advantages. / Advantages of using TCM: 1. TCM sees the person as an integral Mind/body organism, thereby does not treat just symptoms/diseases. TCM ventures to stimulate the body's natural healing potential by treating root causes rather than just symptoms. 2. TCM, used to treat infertility, minimises undesired side effects & accumulated toxicity from invasive procedures & drug therapies, known & unknown. 3. TCM may be used to strengthen & balance one's general health so that IVF, GIFT, ZIFT, ICSI, AHT & TET procedures are more effective. Patients of TCM derive general health benefits & endocrine system balancing from specific AP & Herbal Med. Pregnancy becomes easier to achieve & postpartum recuperation happens faster. Med studies have been done in China to verify this type of whole body health enhancement. 4. Widespread use of TCM suggests that it is a complete health care system & can be used with or without integration with WM. The integration of WM, as we know it in America, began in the Orient <100 yr ago. It is called integral TCM (ITCM). TCM techniques (AP & herbs) seem to work best when combined with WM. / Unexplained infertility / LV-Qi Stasis: Irritability, depression, frustration are keywords to LV-Qi-Stasis. Whenever an organ is mentioned in TCM, it implies the related Channel & its TCM functions. A Channel is a conduit along which Qi (vital energy) flows. The psychological aspect of LV is said to assist in planning easily & wisely. The person who suffers from LV-Qi-Stasis may be found in a job that they don't enjoy, working late hours, & with a history of taking birth control pills. There often exists an inner psychological frustration about having & raising children. Dysfunctional family factors play a major role in LV-upset, as the condition may have existed for years. / Physical symptoms of irregular periods, PMS, dark coloured blood with small clots, breast pain with distension, worry & frequent sighing & headaches often accompany the psychological symptoms. Pulse diagnostic palpation at the radial artery usually reveals a wiry & small quality pulse in the person with a LV imbalance. Pulse Diagnosis at the radial artery is an extremely sensitive & skilled art that takes years to perfect. It is like a Lab blood test. Each wrist has >12 different pulse positions & 28 pulse qualities can related to each one of these positions. The readings yield a multitude of relationships when integrated & compared with the patients' signs, symptoms & tongue characteristics. The different pulses can confirm a diagnosis & be used to monitor a patient's progress. A skilled practitioner can diagnose both pregnancy & the sex of a child from the pulses. / Infertility due to LV-Qi-Stasis manifests mostly in women & is a common cause of unexplained infertility. This is because this type of LV-Stasis effects the blood flow in the pelvic cavity. AP at the right time in the menstrual cycle, in conjunction with an herbal formula & some counselling, very likely can clear the Stasis in several mo. The resulting pregnancy is more than welcome along with the emotional clarity that arrives when LV is less toxic (less LV-Stasis). Couples must realise, however, that the prevalence of LV-Qi-Stasis in modern society is not something simple that can be relieved overnight. It may take 9 mo or more to release the stress, trauma, & toxin in the system, if it is at all possible. Some cases resolved in <1 mo. / Miscarriage in TCM: Since the Western Han Dynasty (206BC-24AD), Chinese people have been using TCM to effectively treat both male & female infertility.

115#Hirsh RC2 (1996) Chin Med & Assisted Reproductive Technology for the Modern Couple: Part 2. Many texts have been published in the medical literature focusing on these problems that have so recently come to the forefront in western society. TCM for threatened miscarriage includes AP, herbs, diet & an a different approach to exercise. Treating infertility & miscarriage by any method is complicated & involved. The medicine that helps the patient attain a healthy Qi, Tian kuei, can greatly aid the woman who has had miscarriages due to hormonal imbalance. For women >40 there are herbs to nourish the deeper vitality necessary to ovulate healthy ova. Currently, both in China & America, TCM is used with WM techniques & testing to design an effective course of treatment for the couple wishing to achieve not only pregnancy, but also a healthy baby delivered at full term. 60% of all spontaneous abortions occur in the first half of the first trimester of pregnancy. Genetics play a key role in habitual miscarriages. To presume that TCM alters genetic structure without triple blind studies etc., would be a stretch of the imagination for most people. However, TCM is very effective in strengthening a persons' constitution. If a woman has miscarried, it is important to build & conserve her Qi & build her Xue. This usually means building & conserving KI-Qi, as within KI both Yin (Xue) & Yang (Qi) are generated. In TCM, KI means the whole psychophysical interrelated matrix & visceral relationship of KI function & its Channel conduits, not just the ear-shaped organs guarded by the ribs just above the lower back. / In TCM, all chronic imbalances effect KI; if a person has a weak constitution (e.g. is pale, feels cold is undernourished, etc), then this is due to either prenatal (genetic) influences (Yuanqi-Xu) and/or life-habits & illnesses which weaken KI-Qi. (KI Qi Xu), or obstruct it (KI Qi stasis). The way to change these conditions, if possible, is to change them through treating KI with tools of AP, herbs, diet, & exercise. KI means bone & bone marrow, & Xue is made from the marrow. Xue nourishes Qi & the cycle regenerates & builds. In TCM, the Xue nourishes, the Qi protects, & KI-Qi holds the foetus. KI is injured by Cold, therefore dietary considerations are generally applicable for this patient. Recent studies have also shown that good dental hygiene & dental work of high quality can increase fertility. / A very famous formula, that builds Qi-Xue, is used to strengthen the body & prepare a woman for conception. This is especially useful if she has a history of miscarriage. The formula should be given for 3-6 mo before conception is attempted. It is called "The Rock on Tai Mountain Decoction." This somewhat poetic name refers to a great mountain that many Chinese religiously pilgrimage to, hoping to get their prayers answered. It is an extremely demanding climb of 1000, just as pregnancy is demanding of the modern mother. Just giving this herbal decoction does not guarantee that conception will take place & the next baby delivered to full term. Seeing the patient as a whole person & thereby considering their total health picture helps the TCM physician decide how to choose & change a formula to be specific to the patient. / Sex during pregnancy: Oriental culture has a very direct & honest attitude toward sexuality. As sex is seen as a natural function, as natural as "clouds & rain", nothing sexual is considered to be "dirty". In training, a TCM practitioner is taught that it is not the job of the physician to be judgmental about an individual's sexual practices; it is more important to discuss the consequences of these practices. Therefore it is easy for the doctor to indicate that intercourse during the first trimester is contraindicated, especially for the woman that has a history of miscarriage, as the placenta is not yet fully formed. Many men have a problem with this recommendation (but the "problem" can be solved without risk to the female). Usually, TCM practitioners go one step further & indicate that it is probably best for all couples to abstain from intercourse for the whole 9 mo of pregnancy. Modern couples usually have no problem with this idea especially when they consider the investment they have made. For the couple, where the woman is over 40, even western physicians do not recommend intercourse for the entire pregnancy. / Raising fertility quotient with TCM / 1. Timing & consistency of treatment, whether having AP or just taking herbs, is of primary importance. Consistency of treatment is most important for men, as to raise sperm count & motility with herbs starts to take effect in mo 4 of treatment. It takes 70 d to generate new sperm. Timing & consistency is also important for women, as specific hormonal adjustments can be made at each week of the cycle. Missing 1 wk of treatment may lose an important chance to heal a particular segment of the 4 phase menstrual cycle. It takes a minimum of 3 consecutive cycles (12 treatments) to do the foundation work of regulation regardless of biological age. Most women can benefit from this type of concentrated foundational treatment every 2 yr, even if they aren't trying to conceive. This should be started before a woman reaches 28 yr old or earlier if birth control pills have been taken. / 2. Course of 6-9 mo: It usually takes longer to balance a woman's reproductive system if she is nearing 40-yr old & has had either many fertility drugs (over 3 cycles) or other complications. These include, PMS, ART procedures, elevated FSH, PCOS, endometriosis, sperm antibodies, or a history of use of birth control pills, drugs, alcohol, or smoking abuse. Likewise, if a man has a history of STDs, history of drug, alcohol, smoking, or sexual abuse, urinary tract infections, burning urination, chronic lower back pain, prostatitis, difficulty passing urine, or other urological health issues it takes longer to rejuvenate the reproductive function. The extent of rejuvenation is relative to the effort & inherent constitution of the individual. Daily training sessions with the right exercises usually provide tangible results when combined with weekly treatment, meditation & a reasonable diet. The couple must expect to focus 6-9 mo before expecting to evaluate results. There is no quick path to conception, full term pregnancy & recovery after delivery. / 3. Re-evaluation: In TCM, it is appropriate to evaluate between the 6th-9th mo of consistent treatment if a woman is in a high state of wellness (warm hands & feet & no PMS are good indicators), & has a "normal" active & a relatively low-stress, energy-abundant lifestyle. / 4. Biological v chronological age: The 2000-yr old TCM classic (Neijing Suwen Lingshu) states precepts of health & ageing that remain very important today. Accordingly, the normal life span for humans is over 100 yr. Some monks have lived in good health to >150 yr old. In the Neijing dialogue between the Yellow Emperor & his old Taoist teacher (Qipo), Huangdi asks: "Why does medicine exist?". Qipo answers: "because people have severed themselves from their roots (Tao)".

116#Hirsh RC3 (1996) Chin Med & Assisted Reproductive Technology for the Modern Couple: Part 3. The reconnection between the individual & their "roots" (spirituality) is a very important aspect in the maintaining of youthfulness & is thereby inherent in the basic foundation of TCM. Modern science supports this in the focus on the emerging stem cell technologies & the possible cures for major life threatening diseases. The umbilical cord is abundant in stem cells, which suggests a deep-rooted connection between Jingqi (Source-Essential-Ancestral Qi) & the umbilicus. The umbilicus contains CV08 (Shenque, Spirit Palace, also called Qishe (Qi Residence)). It is also the essential physical connection to the mother's uterus & the route of the mothers Qi to the foetus). Understanding the root cause & quality of one's own longevity can slow the ageing process & rejuvenate the body as thoughts can create reality. Knowing with certainty that we are an ageless body is the basis for creating high level wellness in the modern world. Longevity however is more than just belief. / 5. Correct dietary & exercise habits are just as important for the preconceptive mother as for the father. Eating salads (Cold nature food) for a year is not the best diet for a person who has generally a low basal body temperature (BBT). Sometimes eating meat such as lamb (warming food) can help tonify a "Cold" barren uterus. In cases of unexplained infertility, or male factors, couples can do specific physical & mental exercises to generate the right environment necessary for creativity & conception. / 6. Combining WM reproductive technologies with TCM (AP & Herbal Med) demands good communication between team members; that includes the patient as the captain. Communication between the patient, the acupuncturist & the reproductive specialist is a delicate process. It is important for the physician to know the procedures of the acupuncturist or herbalist & vice-versa. Lack of knowledge of a patient's herbal program can affect the results of an ART procedure. It even can be detrimental, as alternative therapies effectively change a person's body. Also, it is important that the patient tell the acupuncturist about any herbs or vitamins (other than standard prenatal vitamins) that are being taken while undergoing treatment. Over-the-counter herbal remedies may sometimes be effective, but may not be indicated for a particular cycle. It could be like having carpet delivered for the baby's room before the concrete foundation was poured for the house. / TCMs & AP work quite differently than WMs. They are gentle & deep acting rather than flashy & bright. Expect to feel a growing subtle influence that permeates your life like the smell of star jasmine on a summer's night. / 7. Previous AP treatment? When selecting an acupuncturist or any healer it is important to know that they are suitably qualified to do fertility work. Communication, experience & skill are important. Having a state AP license means that acupuncturists have passed a course of study that qualifies them as entry level practitioners. Usually this training lasts circa 3000 h. Though some programs for physicians are only 300 h, more & more doctors who integrate the reproductive techniques of TCM with WM have more than entry level experience of treating couples. These physicians are to be sought out, as treating infertile couples demands not just general practice but also a speciality skill. General practice skills help remove pre-existing conditions. If these conditions are the cause of infertility then the couple's fecundity quotient will increase. However, if either reproductive function or biological age of the endocrine system is the primary contributory factor, speciality skills & experience are needed. / Bibliography. / 1. The Infertility Book, A Comprehensive Med & Emotional Guide, Harkness, Carla, 2nd edition 1992, Celestial Arts, P.O. Box 7327 Berkeley, California. (510) 845-8414. / 2. Infertility: A guide for the Childless Couple, Menning, Barbara Eck, New York, Prentice Hall rev. 1988. / 3. You Can Have A Baby, Everything you need to Know about Fertility, Bellina, Joseph H., M.D., Ph.D., Wilson, Josleen New York, Crown Publishers Inc., 1985. / 4. Adoption, Is It For You?, Dywarsuk, Collette T. New York: Harper & Row, 1973. / 5. Endometriosis & Infertility & TCM, Flaws, Bob, CO, Blue Poppy Press, 1989. / 6. Endometriosis as Treated by TCM, Cao Ling-xian & Tang Ji-fu (1983). Trans. CS Cheung, MD & Carolyn Atkinson) J Am Coll of TCM. SF, CA, 1(1):54-57. / 7. A Woman's guide to Endometriosis, Older, Julia, Charles Scribner's Sons, NY, 1984. / 8. Handbook of Chin Herbs & Formulas, Vol 1 & 2, Him-che Yeung, Los Angeles, 1985. / 9. Chin Herbal Patent Formulas, A Practical Guide, Jake Fratkin, Shya Publications, 1986. / 10. Chin Tonic Herbs, Ron Teeguarden, Japan Publications, Inc. 1985. / 11. Wise Woman Herbal For the Childbearing Year, Weed, Susun, New York, Ash Tree Publishing, PO Box 64, Woodstock, NY 12498, 1986. / 12. Consumer Protection Issues Involving IVF Clinics (stock number 552-070-06387-1 US Govt Printing Office, $31) 202-2753030. / Ho CM, Hseu SS, Tsai SK, Lee TY (1996) Effect of PC06 acupressure on prevention of nausea & vomiting after epidural morphine for post-caesarean section pain relief. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand Mar; 40 (3):372-375. Dept of Anaesthesiology, Veterans General Hospital-Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Nausea & vomiting are important side effects after administration of epidural morphine for post-Caesarean section pain relief. Stimulation of PC06 is a TCM modality used for antiemetic purpose; it has been found to be effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiemetic effect of PC06 acupressure in parturients given epidural morphine for post-Caesarean section pain relief. In a randomised, double-blind controlled trial, 60 parturients receiving epidural morphine for post-Caesarean section pain relief were investigated. Parturients were allocated to receive the acupressure bands or placebo bands on PC06 bilaterally before the administration of spinal anaesthesia & were observed over a 48-hour study period. The incidence of nausea & vomiting was significantly decreased from 43% & 27% in the control group, to 3% & 0% in the acupressure group, respectively (p<.05). The prophylactic use of acupressure bands bilaterally on PC06 significantly reduced the incidence of nausea & vomiting after epidural morphine for post-Caesarean section pain relief. Randomised controlled trial.

117#Ho CM, Hseu SS, Tsai SK, Lee TY (1996) Effect of PC06 acupressure on prevention of nausea & vomiting after epidural morphine for post-caesarean section pain relief. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand Mar; 40 (3):372-375.

118#Holm-Hadulla M (1990) [AP treatment of enuresis in children]. Akupunkt Theorie Praxis (3):189-195. AP is effective in treating enuresis in children. Points recommended are: 1. Main points: CV04, SP06, ST36, LV03; 2. Helper points: HT07, PC06, BL23. To reinforce the effect, parents should press, massage or needle CV04 & SP06.

119#Hong WX; Hong H (1990) Current status of AP & moxibustion in the treatment of Gynaecopathy. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 9 (1):38-40, 11. They reviewed the treatment of menstruation disorders, pregnant diseases, postpartum diseases & gynaecological diseases. Also: Hong WX; Hong H (1991) General introduction of treatment of gynaecological disease with AP in the last 3 years. Chin AP Moxibust 11 (3):156-159. They summarised the following syndromes treated by AP: (1) menstrual illness: irregular menses, pre-menstrual tension, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhoea; (2) pregnant disorders: morning vomiting, abortion, abnormal foetal position; (3) postpartum diseases: retention of urine, oligogalactia, acute mastitis; (4) other gynaecological diseases: leucorrhoea, hysteromyoma, leukoplakia vulvae, mammary hyperplasia, thelalgia, infertility & cancer of the uterus.

120#Hong YH; Hong HW (1986) [Earpoint pressure in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea: Report of 30 cases]. Hubei JTCM (6):44. Main Earpoints: Uterus, LV, GB, KI, Abdomen, Endocrine, Adrenal, BP-lowering-Groove, Ear Root, Vagus etc. Helper points are ST, HT, Shenmen etc. Vaccaria Seeds were taped at the points & pressed >10 times/d. Dysmenorrhoea was released in 12-24h. Except 3 cases using Chinese herbal medicine for climacteric syndrome, 18/27 cases were free from pain in 12h; 7 in 24h; 4 had less pain; 1 failed.

121#Hou SK; Dong ZL (1984) [Observation of therapeutic effects on the treatment of 90 cases of women mammary hyperplasia by refrigeration AP & moxibustion]. Chin AP Moxibust 4(5):15-16. Short-term therapeutic effects of treatment of mammary hyperplasia by refrigeration AP & moxibustion in this group was increased respectively to 33 & 23 when compared to results by regular AP & simple Chinese herbs. Points selected for refrigeration AP were CV17, ST18 & Tianying (the centre of hyperplasia). Even Bu Fa-Xie Fa was used, with needles retained for 15-20 min. The temperature at the needle handle was between -10 & +20 deg C. Treatment was once/d with "LR1-3 Model Electronic Refrigeration-Heating AP & Moxibustion Apparatus." 6-12 treatments constituted one course. Experimentally, this method can raise cellular immunity & improve blood circulation.

122#Hu Ja4 (1993) How is impotence treated with AP?. JTCM Sep 13(3):234-235. Inst of AP & Moxibustion, China Acad of TCM, Beijing PRC. No abstract online.

123#Hu Z, Chen B, Tong J, Huang D, Lu S (1993) The change of C-fos expression in ovariectomised rats after EAP treatment: an immunohistochemistry study. AP Electrother Res Apr; 18 (2):117-124. Dept of Neurobiology, Shanghai Medical Univ, PRC. The roles of EAP in regulating the function of ovulation in rat have been investigated; however, the systematic study for the involvement of neural population of central nervous system (CNS) in AP to promote functional recovery of the ovariectomised rat has not been well understood. This research was designed to examine, by C-fos immunocytochemistry, the distribution of Fos labelled neurone in CNS after AP at CV03, CV04, SP06 & Y_18-Zigong in ovariectomised rat. The area occupied by Fos protein labelled neurone, 2 h after ovariotomy, was detected in medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), lateral preoptic nucleus (LPN), suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PANH), medial amygdala nucleus (MAN), periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVNH), ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VNH), & arcuate nucleus (AR). The C-fos immunoreactive labelled neurones disappeared 2 wk later after ovariotomy. The rat, recovering for 2 wk after ovariotomy, received EAP, & many specific Fos labelled cell were observed in LPN, PVNH, VNH, SCN & especially in AR, PANH & MPN, but not any labelled neurone could be found in MAN. No obvious C-fos expression was shown in these areas in the control group & EAP group without ovariotomy. The above structures regulate the function of HPOA; EAP can modulate this function through effects on the above nuclei.

124#Huang BY; Wang SH (1987) [Clinical observation of 758 cases of inflammatory diseases treated by He-Ne laser irradiation on AP point or area]. WFAS 1st Conf (UK):89-90. He-Ne laser was used on AP points in 758 cases of adnexitis, pelvic inflammatory masses, fallopian tube adhesion or obstruction, & postoperative pelvic adhesion. The laser had a wavelength of 632.8 nm & red light. The depth of penetration was about 1.5 cm. 631 cases of adnexitis, tubes adhesion were treated with 3-5 mW He-Ne laser irradiation at Y_18-Zigong, CV03, CV06, CV04, BL23, & BL26 bilateral. The curative rate was 85% & the effective rate 97%. 127 cases of pelvic inflammatory masses were irradiated at Y_18-Zigong & BL31-34 bilateral by 25 mW He-Ne laser; the effective rate was 94%. 405/758 cases were complicated with infertility averaging 5.2 yr. After therapy the rate of conception was 45%. Laser therapy has the advantage of no side effect, painless, no infection & no fainting during treatment. Its use is simple. The white blood cells, liver function & ovarian function were observed in laser therapy with no adverse effect.

125#Huang BY; Wang SH; Wang DW (1984) [He-Ne laser irradiation at acupoints in the treatment of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease: Report of 180 cases]. Beijing Med J 6 (1):42-44. 180 cases of chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases were treated by 3-5 mW He-Ne laser-AP from October 1980 to August 1982. Obvious effects were obtained in 131 cases (73%) showed cases clear effects; the effective rate was 96%. Of 101 cases of infertility, 32 became pregnant, of which 15 conceived during therapy. Vaginal smears for oestrogenic activity, BBT & urine progesterone were measured in some of the infertile patients, & proved that this treatment might improve ovarian function. Little side effects were observed during treatment. Also:

126#Huang JM; Deng QM (1986) [Experiences in direct moxibustion following traditional Zhuang medicine]. Guangxi TCM Mater Med 9(2):11-13. A method using drug processed ramie thread, light it to cauterise AP points of patient's skin, so as to cure certain diseases. Light the thread; point the lighted end of the thread toward the AP point, & then using the thumb belly to press the burning lighted end to the point steadily & swiftly, till it burns out. It is called one zhuang. In general, 1 zhuang/point. The local skin may feel slightly warm. The appliance of swift press, so that the time of lighted end contacting the point is short, is called mild moxibustion; while with slow press, the time of lighted end contacting the skin is longer, is called strengthened moxibustion for severe disease. The indications of this method are: fever of common cold, lobular mammary hyperplasia, dysmenorrhoea, pruritus vulvae, diarrhoea, allergic rhinitis, central serosic retinochoroiditis, urticaria etc.

127#Huang WY; Guo ZR; Yu J (1985) [Pruritus vulvae treated with AP: Preliminary study of 56 cases]. Chin AP Moxibust 5(3):7-9. Pruritus is the most common symptom of vulvar diseases with frequent recurrences & is usually seen in gynaecological clinics. 56 cases of pruritus vulvae treated with AP; 39 had local signs, while 17 others only had symptoms of pruritus but no apparent local signs. Main points: CV03, BL35; Helper points: ST30, SP09, SP06, KI06 & LV03. Treatments were twice/wk for 10 times/course, for 1-7 courses (mean 2 courses). All cases were followed for 3-19 mo. 96% of cases were asymptomatic or had relief of pruritus symptoms, & their local skin conditions were much improved in 59%. This method seems effective, economical & worth recommending.

128#Huang WY; Guo ZR; Yu J (1987) 56 cases of chronic pruritus vulvae treated with AP. JTCM 7 (1):1-3. The AP section of the Obs&Gyn Hospital of Shanghai Med Univ treated 56 cases of pruritus vulvae with AP during the period from Aug 1980 to Dec 1982 with satisfactory therapeutic effect. Main points: CV03 & CV01; Helper points: ST30, LV03, KI06, SP09+ SP06. The duration of treatment was 1-7 courses, the average being 2 courses. After AP treatment & at follow-ups between 3 & 19 mo, the total effective rate was 96.4%.

128a#Huang X (1991) Treatment of urinary retention with AP & moxibustion. JTCM Sep 11(3):187-188. People's Hospital of Ji'an District, Jiangxi Province, PRC.

129#Huang YH (1985) [Ear-AP in the treatment of menstruation diseases: Report of 2 cases]. Yunnan JTCM 6 (5):37-38. Case 1: Dysmenorrhoea. Acupoints: Uterus, Endocrine, KI, Subcortex. Needle-embedding therapy was used 3 d before menstruation, & the patient was cured after treatment over 4 periods. Case 2: Amenorrhoea. Mung bean-embedding therapy was used. The two ears were treated alternately, 3 d for each ear. Acupoints: Endocrine, Uterus, KI, Ovary, LV. After 5 d of Mung bean-embedding treatment, the patient was cured.

130#Huang YS (1992) Postpartum oligogalactia treated by AP at point KI01: Report of 56 cases. New Journal of TCM 24 (1):32-33. Parturient was asked to take a supine position with both legs stretched flatly. KI01 on one side or both sides was selected. After routine cleaning, 1.5", 28 gauge, was inserted perpendicularly 1", & a strong stimulation was given after Deqi. Even needle twisting manipulation was applied for 2-3 min. Needle was retained for 30 min, & twisted once/10 min. After needling, breasts were massaged & squeezed for 5-10 min, or baby was asked to suckle. Treat once/d for 3 d. 34 cases were clearly effective, 20 cases effective, 2 cases failed; total effective rate was 96%.

131#Huang ZX (1984) [Clinical uses of ST Channel & SP Channel points]. Fujian JTCM 4(3):38-39. The paper emphasises the significance of acupoints on SP & ST Channels, which were paid attention by physicians of successive dynasties. The acupoints are used widely in vary diseases, e.g. stomach-ache, gastroptosis, vomiting, diarrhoea, etc. in the digestive system can be satisfied with the acupoints of ST36, ST25, CV12, ST37, ST44, etc.; the others may concern urogenital system, e.g. CV04 & SP06, for enuresis, SP06, SP09 & CV03 for anuria; moreover ST36 may also play a preventive role in influenza. Therefore, points on SP & ST Channels are useful not only for disorders of digestive system, but are effective or helpful for those of other systems also. They also have wide influence in regulating the homeostatic responses in physiology & pathology of organism.

132#Huang ZX (1993) [Combination of AP & drugs for chronic prostatitis: Treatment of 90 cases]. J Fujian Coll Trait Chin Med 3 (3):129-131. Chronic prostatitis is a common disease that is difficult to cure; it is often caused by bacterial infection. The main manifestations are: frequent & urgent urination, aching of lumbosacral portion, heavy & distending sensation of lower abdomen, etc. With the rectal touch & the examination of prostatic fluid, the disease can be exactly diagnosed. TCM considers that, it closely relates to SP & KI, & is due to Qi Xu in SP & KI, Xue Stasis & downward flow of Damp-Heat. So the combination of AP & drugs was used, based on the principles of reinforcing SP & KI, eliminating Damp & Heat, & activating the blood to remove Xue Stasis. The effective rate was 97% & the cure rate was 65%.

133#Huang ZY (1985) [Adult enuresis treated by AP & moxibustion: Report of 10 cases]. Guangxi TCM Mater Med 8(6):30. After routine sterilisation, AP was used at CV04 & SP06 with moderate needle manipulation to the patient's tolerance until Deqi. CV04 was needled obliquely downward 1-2" until Deqi to tolerance spread to the perineum. SP06 bilateral was needled until the patient felt contracting sensation over the toes. Moxa was used/point for 10-15 min after retaining the needle for 30 min. Treatment was once/d for 2 wk/course. Among the 10 cases of this group, 6 have got complete recovery, 3 got better, & 1 failure.

134#Huo JS (1988) Treatment of 11 cases of chronic enuresis by AP & massage. JTCM (ENG) 8(3):195-196. 11 cases of chronic enuresis refractory to simple AP were treated by AP in combination with massage. Quick & effective results were obtained. Needle BL23, BL54 & CV03 once/d, followed by massage. With the patient lying prone (face-down) exposing the back, the physician uses his thumb, index finger & middle finger to knead the skin progressively up along the spinal column from the sacrococcygeal region to GV14 three times. During the second time pinch the skin up forcefully at BL31, BL32, BL33 & BL34, BL23 & BL15. Finally, massage BL23 + BL31-BL34, 30 times. Then with the patient lying supine (face-up), snatch up the lower belly in the area of CV06 & CV04 with all 5 fingers of the right hand & shake several times, this procedure being repeated 5 times. All 11 cases were cured. All could wake up to urinate at night & did not wet the bed any more.

134.1#Hyde F (1989) Acupressure therapy for morning sickness: A controlled clinical trial. J Nurse Midwifery 34(4):171-8. A prospective, controlled clinical trial examined the efficacy of acupressure therapy for morning sickness, using a two group, random assignment, crossover design. Subjects in group 1 (N=8) used acupressure wristbands for 5 d, followed by 5 d without therapy. Subjects in Group 2 (N=8) had no therapy for 5 d, followed by 5 d use of wristbands. The Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist & Sickness Impact Profile were used, & extent of nausea was assessed at baseline, d 5, & d 10. Use of acupressure wristbands relieved morning sickness for 12/16 subjects (chi2=5.13 with Yates' correction factor, df=1, p<.025). Acupressure therapy resulted in statistically significant (p<.05) reductions in anxiety, depression, behavioral dysfunction, & nausea. Limitations of the study & suggestions for future research are presented.

135#Hyodo M (1988) [Comparison of the effect between nerve block & AP for various painful diseases]. Orient Med Pain Clin 18(2):58-63. The effects of nerve block & AP in the treatment many painful diseases were compared. Nerve block was better in the treatment of headache (especially in its acute stage, neck pain, periarthritis of shoulder joint, low back pain, knee-joint pain, postherpetic neuralgia etc. AP therapy was preferable for such diseases as whiplash injury, pain of frozen neck or shoulder & pain originated form disorder of vegetative nerve or climacteric symptoms.

136#Ikeda K; Seki M; Yamaguchi A (1988) [AP therapy of surgical area: Effect of postoperative paraesthesia & equivocal complaints]. J Jpn Soc AP 38(1):137. 14 cases after surgical operation were investigated, including breast cancer, stomach carcinoma, rectal cancer & liver tumour. The postoperative complaints included uneasiness around the wound, shoulder pain, arthralgia & lumbago. After AP treatment, the effective rate was 77%. It is considered that AP is effective for most postoperative cases with uneasiness around the wound.

137#Ikeuchi T; Iguchi H (1994) [Clinical studies on chronic prostatitis & prostatitis-like syndrome (7): Electric AP therapy for intractable cases of chronic prostatitis-like syndrome]. Hinyokika Kiyo Jul 40(7):587-591. Dept of Urol, Fujigaoka Hospital, Sch of Med, Showa Univ, Japan. 17 men with prostatic pain (chronic prostatitis-like syndrome) refractory to conventional medical treatment were treated with low frequency EAP. All had had a complicated clinical course & pelvic hypertonicity. EAP was given to decongest pelvic circulation, especially around the prostate. The clinical efficacy of long-term treatment was excellent in 30% & moderate in 70% of the patients, with an overall efficacy rate of 100%. Treatment with Chinese medicines & chemical agents were withdrawn completely in 50% of the patients; treatment with chemical agents were withdrawn in 30% of the patients, & the dose of either type of medication was reduced in 20% of the patients. To examine whether the efficacy of EAP was related to the induction of cytokines we also examined the serum levels of INF-gamma, IL-1 beta & IL-6, but, no significant elevations were detected.

138#Irie S (1987) [Lectures on clinical moxibustion therapy (14): "woman's complaint" (climacteric disturbance)]. Orient Med 15(2):85-87. In AP medicine the climacteric disturbance is included in the "woman's complaint" for treatment. "woman's complaint" not only exists during climacteric, but occurs long before that, in the mature stage. This is the pathological point view of oriental medicine. Points for moxibustion in climacteric disturbance are: (1) GV12, GV11, GV10, GV09, GV08, (2) For neck-shoulder-back ache: BL10, GB20, or GB12, GB21, BL43, SI11, BL13, BL17 etc. (3) Gynaecological points: CV04, CV02, BL53, GB26, SP06, ST36, KI02, etc. (4) For globus hystericus take LV01.

139#Jiang DQ (1987) Observation on the therapeutic effect in 135 cases of enuresis with AP treatment. J Chin AP Moxibust [Eng] 1(1-2):103-104. 135 cases of enuresis were treated by scalp AP in combination with body AP. Movement area was adopted in Scalp-AP. In body AP, puncturing the needle from CV04 to CV03 & from CV06 to CV04 were used alternatively. SP06 & SP09 were used alternately also. 129/135 cases were cured (95%).

140#Jin SB; Peng ZL; Shao WW (1984) [Psychotic disorders treated by AP combined with Chinese herbal drugs: Report of 155 cases]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust (1):2-4. Psychosis in TCM is called "mental disorder". The depressive state is divided into 4 types: 1. Delusion schizophrenia: Main points Z_03 through HT region (midpoint between the inner canthi) & PC06; Helper point, SP06. 2. Simple schizophrenia: Main points Z_01-Sishencong, GV15 & PC06; Helper points HT05 & KI04. 3. Strained schizophrenia: Main points GV16, GV15, GV14 & PC06; Helper points SI03 etc. 4. Climacteric psychosis: Main points GV20, Z_03 through HT region, PC06 & PC05 (the last two points used alternately); Helper points Neisizhukong [inside TH23] & SP06. For manic state, points were: 1. GV26 through GV28, PC05, ST40 etc. 2. GV26 through GV28, CV15 through CV14 etc. For manic-depressive syndrome, 1. Adolescent schizophrenia: Main points Z_03 through HT region & PC05. 2. Strained type: main points GV16, GV26 through GV28 & PC05. 3. Manic-depressive psychosis: Main points GV26 through GV28 & PC05. AP was every 2 d, 3 times/wk. 75/155 cases were cured; 34 effective; 5 improved; 18 failed.

141#Jin Y, Wu L, Xia Y (1996) [Clinical study on painless parturition under drugs combined with APA - Article in Chinese]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu (AP Res) 21 (3):9-17. Obs&Gyn Hospital, Capital Medical Univ, Beijing. To study the analgesia efficacy of drugs combined with APA for painless parturition, 462 normal pregnancy women were observed. During the latent phase in parturition, several analgesia methods: APA, analgesics, magnetotherapy & Ear acupressure, TENS combined with dihydroetorphine were used respectively. While the intrauterine pressure & the peripheral content of beta-EP were measured during parturition, the experiments of SEPS were also performed on healthy adults to show the efficacy of those analgesic methods. The combination of drugs with AP is an excellent method for painless parturition without any complications & all the mothers & babies are safety. The effectiveness is 97.5%. The mechanism of APA should be to regulate uterine coordination & improve its hypertonic state, but also can increase the pain threshold & tolerance to uterine contractions during parturition.

142#Ju DH; Guo CJ; Yin KJ (1992) [The influence of AP stimulation on the cellular immunity of rats with mammary gland hyperplasia induced by high concentration of oestradiol]. J Yunnan Coll TCM 15(2):39-42. Experimental results showed: As observed in rats, AP has antagonistic effect on E2-induced mammary gland hyperplasia, & also on E2-induced atrophy of thymus & spleen as well as on decrease of the percentage of acid lipase positive cells in peripheral lymphocytes, thymocytes & splenocytes & lymphocyte transformation rate. AP could regulate the disturbed endocrine system, make excessive E2 content normal & remove the inhibiting action of E2 to lymphoid tissues (especially thymus) & lymphocytes, so as to increase the cellular immune function.

143#Kachan AT, Turbin MY, Skoromets AA, Shmushkevich AI (1993) Reflex AP of neurogenic dysfunction of the urinary-bladder in enuresis. Zhurnal Nevropatol Psikhiatrii Im SS Korsakova 93(5):40-42. The urodynamics of the lower urinary tract were evaluated in 25 children treated for enuresis, of which 16 had unstable bladder. 12 children with detrusor hyperreflexia comprised the largest group. AP was beneficial in 17/25 cases. Follow-up showed detrusor-stabilising effects of AP in cases with neurogenic bladder. The success of AP therapy depended on the mental & emotional status of the patient, concurrent abnormalities & accuracy in observing the practitioner's recommendations. The mechanisms of therapeutic effects of AP were discussed.

144#Katai S; Shimura M; Nishijo K (1987) A clinical study of AP on chronic prostatitis. WFAS 1st Conf (Eng):29-30. AP was performed on cases diagnosed as chronic prostatitis & treated by chemotherapy without improvement & those cases which were regarded as prostatism & bacteriologically negative in urinalysis. On 27 cases averaging 41 (24-59) yr, examinations were made of courses of about 30 items of subjective symptoms, palpable findings in body surfaces of abdominal, dorsal & lumbogluteal regions, & lower extremity, psychological test, & urogenital test findings, etc. The effective rate was 85% for both subjective & objective findings, being 82% by overall judgement. AP was performed on cases of intractable chronic prostatitis; the effective rate on overall judgement was 81.5%.

145#Kawaguchi M (1985) [Studies on Ryodoraku in Obs&Gyn]. Jpn J Ryodoraku Auton Nerv Syst 30 (7):146-146. Materials of Ryodoraku therapy in Obs&Gyn were abstracted from the writings of Dr. Yoshio Nakatani. Experience of the author himself was presented also. These involved the diseases for which Ryodoraku therapy might be effective, & the points used for treatment of each disease were listed.

146#Kawana R (1988) [AP & moxibustion for the hypersensitivity to coldness (1): Studies on the patients with feeling of leg cold]. J Jap Soc AP 38(3):249-258. Of 92 patients with this condition, 3 females with concurrent menstrual disorders or climacteric symptoms are described, & the results of their treatment by AP & moxibustion are reported. They were 21-49 yr-old, with a feeling of cold in their legs. Based on the therapeutic approach characteristic of TCM, symptoms were regarded as indicative of a general problem, & they were treated by AP stimulation combined with simple AP & EAP therapy based on points located on the focal lesion & remote sites. Treatment was repeated 10-15 times. The results were evaluated using a list of complaints prepared by our centre, by grading changes in their complaints into 6 stages. 1) 2/3 cases showed improvement ranging from 2-4 stages with AP & moxibustion, with improvement or disappearance of 65% of the menstrual disorders or climacteric symptoms. 2) In the remaining patient, no change was noted in the feeling of cold in the legs, with improvement or disappearance of 39% of the complaints accompanying the feeling of cold. 3) Of the 92 cases complaining of feeling cold in the legs, 50 who showed improvement by 1 stage or more tended to have a high rate of improvement of complaints associated with the feeling of cold. 4) The complaint of feeling cold in the legs was found in 5.2% of 2000 cases, & treatment with AP + moxibustion was effective for 51% of them. It is necessary to have a comprehensive approach to the feeling of cold in the legs in TCM, rather than treating it as a clinically isolated entity.

147#Kawana R (1988) [AP & moxibustion for the hypersensitivity to coldness (2): Correlation with menstruation, pelvic diameters & abdominal symptoms]. J Jap Soc AP 38(3):259-270. 132/228 (58%) of student nurses from 19-30 yr-old at Tokyo Eisei Gakuen Semmon Gakko of the Goto Gakuen (College of Medical Arts) complained of a feeling of cold. 30 students complaining of a particularly severe feeling of cold in this group were examined by various procedures including observation & questionnaire. Many of the findings associated with the feeling of cold in climacteric women are common to younger people also. Disorders of pelvic circulation were examined in relation to this disease. (1) Cases tended to have a contracted pelvis on measurement of pelvic circumference. (2) This finding correlated with their abdominal signs & symptoms. (3) Complaints associated with prominent autonomic symptoms were frequently noted before & during menstruation. (4) Infrared thermography for skin temperature distribution showed hypothermic areas distributed in the lower half of the body & (5) slight temperature variations in deep areas with time.

148#Kazmie M (1985) APA in obstetrics. AP Electrother Res 10 (3):233. Evaluation of APA was carried out in twenty patients & these were compared with twenty in the control group. The points used are: LI04, CV06, SP06, SP09, ST36 & ST44, in the early stages of parturition. The needles are inserted unilaterally or bilaterally. When parturition advances Ear-AP is used. The points that are usually tender in the ear are: genitalia, urethra, hip, abdomen, lumbar, uterus, sympathy. Needles are twirled manually or stimulated using a WQ10C giving 10 Hz. It is found that obstetric AP causes: 1. Pain relief without drowsiness 2. Co-operative mother 3. Short parturition 4. Alert mother post-delivery 5. Alert baby-no respiratory depression, & 6. Early bonding.

149#Kespi JM (1986) [What is your diagnosis?]. Rev Fr AP 12 (45):93-96. Analysis about diagnosis & treatment of a man of 69 yr who consulted for neuralgia of the testicles & penis.

150#Kitakoji H; Terasaki T; Honjo H; Odahara Y; Ukimura O; Kojima M; Watanabe H (1995) Effect of AP on the overactive bladder. Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi Oct 86(10):1514-1519. Dept of Channels & AP points, Mejii Coll of Oriental Med, Japan. We examined the effect of AP for the overactive bladder. 11 cases (9 male, 2 female, 51-82 (mean 71) yr-old with overactive bladder were treated. 9 had urge-incontinence & 2 had urgency. Before AP, all cases had uninhibited contraction. A 60 mm needle, 0.3 mm in diameter, was inserted bilaterally 50-60 mm deep into BL33 & was rotated manually for 10 min. Treatment was 4-12 (mean 7) times. Urge incontinence was controlled completely in 5/9 & partially in 2/9 cases. In 2 cases that complained urgency, complete response was obtained after treatment. Uninhibited contraction disappeared in 6 cases after treatment. AP increased maximum bladder capacity & bladder compliance significantly. AP at BL33 controlled overactive bladder effectively.

151#Koh TJ; Huang CY; Lee PL (1985) A preliminary study on inducing oestrus in delayed pubertal gilts with AP. AP Res Q (33&34):29-32. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of AP on the induction of oestrus in delayed pubertal gilts. The technique of AP is also discussed to meet the requirement of large-scale application in industrial swine production. 59/117 delayed pubertal gilts, 240 d old, treated once with moxa-AP at Baihui & Weiken, exhibited oestrus & were mated within 21 d after treatment. Another 55 untreated controls didn't show oestrus during this same observed period. Moxa-AP is more acceptable to commercial swine production due to its effectiveness & simplicity when compared with manual & EAP. Moxa-AP is a very simple & useful technique to induce oestrus for gilts in which puberty is postponed. Other aspects of reproductive performance of treated gilts will be examined very soon.

152#Komissarov VI, Tret'iakova EE (1990) [Functional state of kinaesthetic & acoustic indices in children with enuresis after complex reflexotherapy- Article in Russian]. Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im SS Korsakova 90(8):44-47. Before & after a form of AP-cautery, they studied the time-course of changes in function of kinaesthetic & acoustic sensitivity in children (n=62) 9-14 yr-old with enuresis. Therapy was based on cautery of AP points with 25% silver nitrate. Treated cases showed normalisation of the sensitivity of the indices under study. The clinical results of enuresis treatment depend on the degree of correction of the alterations in function of the indices. The measurement of the threshold sensitivity of the sensory systems can be used for the control of the efficacy of the therapeutic measures taken in cases suffering from enuresis.

154#Kong T; Fan T; Chu X (1991) [Studies on the relationship between APA & testosterone or dihydrotestosterone in blood plasma]. Dept of Anatomy, Henan Med Univ, PRC. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu 16(2):138-141. 55 rats (Wistar, Male, 250-350 g) were assigned to 4 groups: 1=BTA (bilateral orchidectomy + adrenalectomy); 2=BT (bilateral orchidectomy); 3=BA (bilateral adrenalectomy); 4=SO (sham operation). EAP was given to bilateral ST36 of each animal at 72 h postoperation. K-iontophoretic colorimetry was used to determine the pain threshold of rats; RIA was used to measure the levels of T & DHT in femoral vein blood. T, DHT & the pain threshold of each animal were measured preoperation & at 72 h postoperation & after EAP but for Group SO, the measurement was done once at 72 h after i/m T phenylacetate. The level of T in BTA & BT groups decreased significantly at 72 h postoperation, but the changes of pain threshold were similar to BA & SO groups. After EAP the level of T in BT & SO groups were raised significantly (p<.01), but in BT group raised slightly (p >.05). In all animals the level of DHT & the pain threshold increased significantly at 45 min after EAP. No effect on pain threshold & EAP-analgesia was observed in group SO after i/m T phenylacetate. T (from testes & adrenal) & DHT rose markedly after EAP. Increasing T & DHT or decreasing T in plasma had no effect on the pain threshold & EAP-analgesia. T & DHT in plasma may not play a role in EAP-analgesia, but EAP may improve hypogonadal condition.

155#Korematsu K; Takagi E; Kawabe T; Nakao T; Moriyoshi M; Kawata K (1993) Therapeutic Effects of Moxibustion on Delayed Uterine Involution in Postpartum Dairy-Cows. J Vet Med Sci Aug 55(4):613-616. Dept of Vet Obs&Gyn, Rakuno Gakuen Univ, Hokkaido, Japan. 48 cows with delayed uterine involution, diagnosed on rectal palpation & vaginoscopic examination 21-35 d after parturition, were allocated to 3 groups. Moxa was used at 12 points in 16 cows once/d for 3 d. 17 cows were injected i/m with 25 mg PGF2-alpha & 15 cows were infused in-utero with 500 mg ampicillin. Uterine involution after treatment was monitored by rectal palpation & vaginoscopic examination. As a monitor of ovarian function, milk progesterone was assayed 3 times/wk. No significant difference occurred in uterine involution among the groups treated with moxa, PGF2-alpha or ampicillin. In the 4 wk after treatment, the % cows with abnormal cervical mucus & bacterial isolation from cervical swab decreased remarkably in all groups. Inactive ovaries were diagnosed in 46% of cows with delayed uterine involution. After moxa use, 67% of cows ovulated & formed corpora lutea. This was a slightly better result than for cows treated with PGF2alpha or ampicillin. Reproductive performance after moxa was comparable to that after PGF2-alpha or ampicillin. In cows, moxa can be used as an alternative to PGF2-alpha & antibiotics to treat delayed uterine involution. (Note: PGF2-alpha is indicated after postpartum cyclicity is established, not before!).

156#Korosec M (1991) AP in Obs&Gyn. Zdravst Vestn Er Dec 60 (12):507-508. The WHO has accepted AP therapy. In the west it is mostly used to treat chronic pain. It is very important that AP has no side effects; when properly used, it is very effective, & only 10% of cases have no pain relief after treatment. AP therapy was applied to gynaecologic cases to treat pelvic pain, primary dysmenorrhoea & for climacteric problems. AP was helpful in treating hot flushes, anxiety & sleeping disorders at climacteric women.

157#Kuang YH; Wei J (1985) [4 years of clinical AP research: 1980-1983]. JTCM 26 (6):55-58. A review on the domestic clinical study of AP & moxibustion in 1980-1983 was made, AP & moxibustion has developed into the acupoint stimulation therapy. Data showed that many diseases have been treated by this therapy with good effects. To confirm the efficacy of AP, the following aspects were studied: infectious disease, especially the viral; physicochemical, biological, metabolic, allergic, connective tissue disease; respiratory, cardiovascular diseases; digestive, urinary, reproductive, haematopoietic, endocrine diseases; neuropsychiatric diseases; surgical diseases; orthopaedic, dermatological disease; gynaecological, paediatric diseases; ophthalmological, otorhinolaryngological diseases; APA, etc. Some acupuncturists do not follow strictly to the rules of manipulation; this may cause some unnecessary accidents.

158#Kubista E, Altmann P, Kucera H, Rudelstorfer B (1976) Influence of EAP on the closure mechanism of the female urethra in incontinence. Am J Chin Med 1976 Summer; 4(2):177-81. The influence of EAP on the sphincter of the female urethra was checked on 20 patients with stress incontinence without gross anatomic variation. This was determined by means of simultaneous cysto-urethromethrometry. After 30 min of EAP via needles in the skin of the lower legs & lower abdomen, a significant increase in "closing pressure" was found. 17 patients even showed positive pressure. In a control group of another 20 patients who, however, did not undergo AP, there were only two cases of slight increase in closing pressure. Also, a second control group of 20 patients was given a placebo suppository in order to eliminate any psychic factor as far as possible. Significant change of the closing pressure could not be found in any of these cases. Even though the working mechanism of EAP is not understood, these experiments seem to confirm that EAP has positive influence on the closing mechanism of the female urethra. Controlled clinical trial PMID: 945686, UI: 76228726

159#Kul'chavenia EV, Khomiakov VT (1994) [A preliminary report on the therapeutic effect of laser thermal puncture with the Bozon-PIRT apparatus in urological & gynaecological diseases- Article in Russian]. Urol Nefrol (Mosk) Sep; 5:37-38. The operative parameters of a new unit for laser thermopuncture manufactured in Russia (Novosibirsk, Ecran) are compared to other equipment characteristics. Preheating of the zone to be exposed to laser increases sensibility to infrared Laser-AP. Laser thermopuncture techniques in cystalgia, algodysmenorrhoea, enuresis are provided.

160#Ky NT (1984) [Treatment of impotence by AP]. Rev Fr Med Tradit Chin 1984; (102):452. 162 cases aged 18-73 yr (57 cases <50 yr-old) were observed, of which 100 had erection failure, 62 cases had poor erections. 142 cases were treated by AP at GV03, GV02, BL10, BL28, BL23, PC09, KI03, KI12, KI23, ST36, SP06, LV02, LV08, CV03, CV04, CV05, CV06, etc. with Bu Fa. 80, 46, 4 & 12 cases were treated 3, 6, 9 & 12 times respectively. 116/142 cases managed erection & sexual activity was normal, but 26/142 cases had no effect. In 20 control cases, the Extra points were punctured; only 2/20 had good results. The therapeutic effect of the treatment group is superior to that of the control (p=.001). Also, there were totally 73 cases accompanied with mental depression, insomnia, anxiety, worry or lassitude. After treatment 58/73 cases had favourable effect.

161#Lai H (1987) Treatment of menopathy by Earpoint pressure therapy. J Chin AP Moxibust [Eng] 1 (1-2):107. 30 cases of menopathy were treated by Earpoint pressure. Of them 18 cases were completely cured, 11 improved & 1 effective, the total effective rate being 97%. The main points used were Uterus, Endocrine, Ovary, KI, LV & SP. The Helper points were: Earpoint Brain; Shenmen for sleeplessness due to Xue Xu; HT & Sympathetic for slow heart beat; Ermigen for rapid heart beat. Dried Vaccaria seeds were used, but for cases with profuse amount of menses, Cuscuta seeds were used instead. The patient was asked to press the points 3-5 times/d for 10 d/course, with the seeds being changed every 2 d. This method of treatment is contraindicated for patients with ear frostbite or who are anaphylactic to adhesive plaster.

162#Lai XP (1994) [Treatment of 76 cases of impotence by AP & point injection]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 13(1):14. To avoid injury, patients had to empty bladder before AP. AP group (n=28): Needle CV04 through CV03 for 2.5"; use Bu Fa until Deqi spreads to glans penis. Needle SP06 straight in to 1" deep with normal Bu Fa-Xie Fa. Use Bu Fa with twisting-rotating at BL23. Needle BL32 to 3-4" deep to make Deqi spread to perineum, external genitals, or penis. Treat once/d for 7 times/course. AP & point injection group (n=48): Points: CV04, SP06. Manipulation: ditto. Mix 31 ml of 5 glucose solution with 1 ampoule (2 mg/ml) of strychnine nitrate. Inject 4 ml of this/point at BL31, BL32, BL33, BL34, bilateral. Treat once every 2 d, for 3 times/course. Allow 7 d between courses. Of these two groups respectively: Cured 18/28 & 41/48 cases (64 & 85%); effective 5 & 5 cases; failed 5 & 2 cases; total effective rates, 83%.

163#Lanza U (1984) [Importance of Chongmai (Strategic Vessel) Channel in pain in pubis: Clinical observation of 40 cases of AP in sportsmen]. Rev Fr Med Tradit Chin (105):606-608. Tendon problems in sportsman may be associated with pubic pain. According to the course of Chongmai (Strategic Vessel), pubic pain relates intimately with injury of Chongmai, being manifest at subjective pain with corresponding sensitive spots. 40 cases in occupational sportsmen were treated by EAP + manipulation according to the theory of Chongmai injury. EAP was used at bilateral SP04, 20 min, 5 Hz, to tolerance + LI04 + ST30, 70 Hz, weak stimulation. In earlier sessions, add KI01; later add ST35, KI13, KI04, GB28, ST03 or LV12, SP12 according to the disease condition. Paint & slightly press above-mentioned acupoints & Ashi site with aromatic oil (Juniperus taiwaniana Hayata, Lavandula angustifolia mill, rosemary & almond oil). 3. Paint the Ashi site with the oil, & knead each surrounding muscle & intermuscular membrane with the four fingers evenly to & fro. Manipulate / massage the loin & back. 31/40 cases healed in 20-30 days, & 9 cases were responded favourably.

164#Lebedev VA (1995) [The treatment of neurogenic bladder dysfunction with enuresis in children using the SKENAR apparatus (self-controlled energy-neuroadaptive regulator)- Article in Russian]. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult Jul; 4:25-26. A self-controlled energoneuroadaptive regulator (SCENAR) is recommended as effective to treat neurogenic bladder dysfunction in children with nocturnal enuresis. This regulator operates according to the principles of TCM & may be used in sanatoria & at home by parents specially trained in the method by a physiotherapist.

165#Ledermair O (1985) [The involutional age from the viewpoint of the gynaecologist - Article in German]. Wien Klin Wochenschr Suppl 165:3-6. Besides the normal ageing processes, which affect all human beings, regardless of their gender the involutional years of women have a number of special characteristics. These are based on the fact, that one group of organs, the reproductive system, hold their function earlier than the others. Because of this, the involution of women is basically different from that of men. During these years she often require therapeutic help by a physician not only for drug therapy but also psychologically. The drug-therapy seems to be relatively simple: balance of the oestrogen deficit. But today oestrogen therapy is more difficult & has to be adjusted individually. The decision has to be made in regard to the type of hormone, the dose, the time sequence, the question of the progesterone component, the risk for malignancy, the effect on clothing & vessels etc. Old & new types of therapy including diet, tea, climate & bathing cures, tranquillisers, drugs for the autonomic nervous system, homeopathic therapy, AP etc. also have their place. We will discuss these questions in the afternoon session extensively since the involutional years of women from the view of the gynaecologists are a very interesting & important field of medicine still for therapy & research.

166#Lee YH; Lee WC; Chen MT; Huang JK; Chung C; Chang LS (1992) AP to treat renal colic. J of Urology Jan 147(1):16-18. Dept of Surgery (Urol) & AP, Nat Yang-Ming Med Coll, Taiwan, ROC. This was a prospective randomised study to compare the effect of AP & i/m Avafortan injection to treat KI colic. AP was as effective as Avafortan in relieving KI colic but it had a more rapid analgesic onset (3.14+2.88 min versus 15.44+7.55 min, p<.05). In the Avafortan group, 7 cases (44%) had side effects, including skin rash in 3, tachycardia in 2, drowsiness in 1 & facial flush in 1. No side effects were noted in the AP group. During 2 h of observation, AP & Avafortan seemed to fail in promoting stone passage. However, cases receiving Avafortan treatment were more likely to have paralytic ileus. AP can be a good alternative to treat KI colic.

167#Li FF (1984) [Clinical obstetrical AP research abroad]. Chin AP Moxibust 4 (1):47-48. A general introduction to clinical AP research abroad & the methods used in obstetrics is given. The main content was: 1) Hastening parturition with AP; 2) Induction of parturition with AP; 3) Protecting the foetus with AP. These are simple, safe & effective methods that are easily acceptable by any pregnant woman.

168#Li GR; Ji LX; Zhang SZ (1985) [AP in the treatment of traumatic paraplegia: Analysis of 124 cases]. JTCM 26( 12):34-35. Points: Dredging of GV Channel: 9 needle points around the transection level (upper border: one spinous process above the segment of injury; lower border: at spinous process of L5, & midpoint of GV Channel points & X_35-Huatojiaji points). 26 gauge needles were manipulated until Deqi. For back points, Deqi should transmit downward underneath the paralysed level. For abdominal points, Deqi should transmit from ST25 to inguinal region. CV points should transmit to pudendal region. For spinal cord injury, light Bu Fa was used. For cauda equina injury, normal Bu Fa-Xie Fa were used. Then 0.5-6 ml Flos Carthami, Radix Salivae Miltiorrhizae, Vit. etc. was injected/point at SP10, ST36, BL57 etc., once every 2 d, alternately for the above points. 10/124 cases were cured; 102 effective; 12 failed; total effective rate was 90%.

169#Li HZ (1992) [Progress in AP treatment of andropathy]. Tianjin JTCM (1):46-48. According to a retrospection of related documents in the past 15 yr, AP treatment of andropathy such as impotence, spermatorrhoea, prostatitis, failure of sperm formation, oligospermia, defective semen liquefaction, shrinkage of penis, was surveyed. Studies should be carried out on the mechanism of AP, needling manipulation, moxibustion method; principles of selecting specific point (s) for the treatment of specific disease & selecting different point (s) according to the Differentiation of symptoms & signs; as well as the application of points proved to be specifically effective.

170#Li J (1985) [Clinical uses of Fengmen (Wind Door) point: Report of 3 cases]. Shaanxi J Chin Tradit Med 6(4):173. Wind pathogenic factor would be expelled by AP at BL12, it might increase the excitability of sympathetic nerve & enhancing the body resistance. Clinical practice proved that BL12 is effective in Syndromes caused by Wind, Cold, Damp & Heat. In this article, 3 cases (Wind Cold induced common cold, asthma & enuresis) were reported. After treatment, all of them were cured.

171#Li LS; Zhao ZB (1992) [Clinical observation on the treatment of 486 cases of facial chloasma with bleeding, cupping & Ear-acupressure]. Chin AP Moxibust 12 (6):287-288. Bleeding method: an ophthalmic knife is used to take 3 drops of blood from the back of the ear; cupping method: a plum-blossom needle is used to tap the triangular area between GV14 & both BL13 to make 15 bleeding sites which are provided with fire-cupping. Also use Earpoints Ovary, Uterus, Shenmen, LI etc. Sterilise Earpoints; tape on dried Vaccaria Seeds & press. Use each ear alternately. They altogether treated 486 cases, & fairly satisfactory effect was obtained.

172#Li LX (1993) [Pruritus vulvae treated mainly by plum-blossom needle therapy: Report of 35 cases]. Shaanxi J Chin Tradit Med 14(6):275. 35 cases with vulvar pruritus were treated by conventional medication + plum-blossom needle tapping on the affected region (Tianying); overall efficacy rate was 97%. This therapy can dispel Damp-Heat, disperse & rectify depressed LV Qi, dissolve Phlegm (lumps), activate circulation & detoxify the body.

173#Li P (1996) [Effect of AP on Female Sex Hormones in Female Rhesus Monkey]. Chin AP Moxibust 16 (7):49-50. Changes of plasma contents of E2 & progesterone after AP were observed in the rhesus monkey. AP of Earpoint "G4", + CV05 & SP06 significantly inhibited E2 secretion (p<.001) & had no significant effect (p>.05) on progesterone secretion. The distinctive action of combination of points is important for clinical application of AP therapy in Obs&Gyn. Also: Li P; Huang XL; Wu CJ (1991) [Experimental observation on AP to E2 & progesterone contents of plasma in female macaque during follicular phase]. J Fujian Coll TCM 1 (1):38-41. Self-contrast in female macaque was used in this study, with the methods of body-point combining with Earpoint & manipulation combining with EAP. AP at Earpoint "G4" + CV05 & SP06 inhibited E2 secretion during follicular phase (p<.001), but had almost no effect to progesterone secretion in the same period.

175#Li RQ; Qin DY (1984) Application of AP in treatment of animal infertility [Cattle, horses]. Sheep Goat-Handbook, Westview Press, Boulder, CO. Vol 4:293-302. No abstract online.

176#Li SW; Zheng GF; Jiang M (1990) Effect of EAP on improving sports endurance & its mechanism analysis. Chinese J of Biomedical Engineering 9 (3):179-181. The sports endurance of mice were obviously improved by EAP at ST36. However, this effect of EAP disappeared in mice only after adrenalectomy, but not after adrenomedullectomy or orchidectomy. The effect of EAP is intimately related only with function of adrenal cortex, but not with that of adrenal or testis. EAP may be used also to enhance sports endurance.

177#Li WB (1987) [Clinical uses of BL40]. Shanxi TCM 3(4):44-45. BL40-Weizhong, was used satisfactorily to treat 5 cases with epistaxis, enuresis, furuncle, psoriasis & eczema. It is a Shu point & the He point of the Foot-Taiyang BL Channel, is also called Xuexi (Blood Xi point). It is used, often by pricking to bleed it, to Clear the Blood, Drain Heat & treat acute back sprain. As it is of specific therapeutic significance, it is also known as the "important point".

178#Li XX (1985) [Leucorrhoea treated by AP combined with cupping therapy: Report of 36 cases]. Henan TCM (6):13. Patients were asked to lie in a prone (face-down) position. Main point for AP was BL32. A 2.0-2.5" needle was inserted obliquely (45 deg) toward the lower limb until Deqi spread to the lower abdomen or the anterior pudenda. In Cold-Damp Type, GV04 was added; mild Bu Fa-Xie Fa was used; needle was retained for 30 min during which it was manipulated twice. In Damp-Heat Type, SP06 was added; Xie Fa with lifting, thrusting, twisting, & twirling was used, & needle was retained for 15 min. Hot-cupping was used simultaneously during needle retention. For Cold-Damp Types, stronger heat was used once every 2 d; for Damp-Heat Type, milder heat was given once/d. In vulvar pruritus, LV05 was added. Treatment was for 7 d/course, with 5 d between courses. 27/36 cases were cured & 9 cases markedly effective.

179#Li XY (1987) [Treatment of andropathies]. Liaoning JTCM 11 (6):12-15. Defective ejaculation: (1) Heteropathy with Chinese medicine. (2) AP: KI12, CV02, CV03, CV04, KI11, BL32, BL33, LV02, LV03. Choose five. AP every 2 d. (3) Procaine block therapy: BL23, BL27, BL28, BL31-34. Inject 10ml of 0.5% procaine to any two points above every 2 d. 7-10 times as one course. Most of the cases improved markedly. Impotence, male hypersexuality & oligospermia: Chinese medicine can be successful.

180#Li YG (1990) Enuresis treated by thread embedding at point GV20: Report of 63 cases. Heilongjiang TCM Mater Med (2):47. The hairs on treated area were cut. After routine sterilisation, 1.0-1.5 ml of 2% procaine were used for local anaesthesia & 2 mm of thread was embedded at GV20. The wound was pressed to stop bleeding & covered with gauze for 3 d. Treatment was repeated every 30 d. Usually 1-2 treatments were needed. 40/63 cases were cured (no enuresis within 6 mo), 10 markedly effective (frequencies of enuresis decreased 2/3), 8 effective (frequencies decreased 1/3) & 5 failed.

181#Li YY; Jin SY; Wang ZQ (1988) [Injection of oxytocin at LI04 for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage]. Acta Univ Med Tongji 17 (2):157-158. Of 2488 cases in this series, oxytocin point injection were performed on 450 cases & i/m injection on 2083 cases randomly. Methods. 5 u oxytocin was injected into LI04 & 20 u i/m after appearance of foetal head. Therapeutic effect. The postpartum bleeding rate was markedly lower in point injection cases than that in those treated by i/m injection. I/m injection of oxytocin might decrease the bleeding amount of blood though no marked decrease of bleeding rate.

182#Li ZA (1985) [Enuresis treated by injections of procaine along Renmai (CV) at lower part of abdominal wall]. Sichuan TCM 3(1):45. After a negative reaction to patch testing with procaine, patients with nocturnal enuresis were asked to lie supine (face-up). The area from the umbilicus to the pubic symphysis was sterilised routinely & 4-5 CV points were used for point-block with 1-1.5 ml 0.5% aqueous solution of procaine/point. Treatment was every 2 d. 5/5 cases had good results.

183#Li ZM (1992) [Some Gynaecopathy treated by AP therapy of xingnaokaiqiao). Tianjin JTCM (6):37-38. 1) Pre-menstrual tension: GV26 was needled obliquely with bird-pecking method until tears flowed. GV20 & Z_01-Sishencong were needled with Xie Fa; SP06, PC06, LV03 were needled with Bu Fa. CV06 was needled with even Bu Fa-Xie Fa & with the needle retained for 20 min. Treatment was given from d 15 before menstrual onset to d 2 after end of menstruation. 2) Menopausal syndrome: Needling at PC06 & GV26 was as above. BL23 was needled straight in to 2" deep & KI03 to 1.5-2" deep, & BL18 obliquely with the tip toward the GV line. All needles were manipulated with Bu Fa. Needled SP06 with uniform Bu Fa-Xie Fa. Treatment was once every 1-2 d, for 10 times/course. 3) Postpartum shock: AP at PC06 & CV03 with Xie Fa; AP at GV26 with bird-pecking method. A_01-Shixuan was used for blood-letting. On regaining consciousness the patient was advised to take Modified Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction. 4) General pain after parturition: GB20, LI11, PC06, GV26, GB34, SP10 & BL17, BL18, BL19, BL20, BL21, BL22, BL23, ST36 were needled with Xie Fa.

184#Liang XY (1984) [Preliminary studies on the therapeutic effect of oligospermia treated by AP & ginger-padded moxibustion]. 2nd Natl Symp AP-Mox & APA (Beijing):158-159. AP & ginger-padded moxibustion for oligospermia (i.e. sperm-count <60 million/ml., sperm-activity <60%, and/or sperm-shape abnormal) was observed at our clinic. A total of 160 cases were treated. AP + ginger-padded moxibustion were applied together at two point-groups: (1) AP at KI12, CV02 & SP06 + moxa at CV04 & CV03; (2) AP at BL31-34 & BL23 + moxa at BL23 & GV04. These treatments were alternated every other day. AP began with tonifying manipulation until the patient felt Deqi, when it was followed by ginger-padded moxibustion with 3 moxas in succession at the most. Every 15 sessions were accounted for one course of treatment and, if necessary, another course could be started after an interval of 1 wk if sperm test not more normal by then. 78% were cured (sperm-count >60 million/ml., sperm-activity >60%, sperm-shape turned normal), 21% improved (sperm-count & activity increased), & 2/160 cases did not change (sperm-count & activity unchanged); the overall effect was 99%.

185#Liang XY (1984) [Treating aspermia by AP & indirect moxibustion]. Chin AP Moxibust 4 (6):14-16. Same material. Also Liang XY (1988) Clinical analysis of aspermia treated by AP & indirect moxibustion with ginger. J Chin AP Moxibust [Eng] 1 (3-4):21-23. Same material. It is supposed that the treatment can elevate 24-hr urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroid & 17-ketosteroid. It contributes to the modulation of the function of hypothalamus-hypophysis-suprarenal glands (the sexual axis).

186#Liang ZP (1988) 32 cases of acute mastitis treated with AP, moxibustion & cupping. JTCM 8(1):15-18. Of the 32 cases in this study, 24 were due to LV-Stasis, & 8 to ST-Heat. One patient was operated upon to drain the pus. The principle of treatment is to relieve Stasis & Obstruction of the mammary gland, clear up the Evil Heat, promote Qi, relieve pain, & eliminate inflammation 1. AP: main points: GB21, CV17, ST18 & ST14 (all ipsilateral). Helper points: LV03 & SP06 for LV-Stasis Syndrome; & GV14, ST36 & LI11 for ST-Heat Syndrome. 2. Moxa stick: During retention of the needles, moxa is given by moving the stick over the whole breast, & mild moxibustion is applied over the hard mass at some distance. At the same time the hard mass is gently massaged without touching the needle. 3. Cupping : Cupping is performed 3-4 times as required over the nipple (ST17), to drain the stagnated milk. The hard mass may resolve & become soft through the strong suction. Caution must be exercised in the application of cupping to cases that have developed soft abscesses. Of 32 cases treated, 28 were cured; 3 improved, & only 1 obtained no benefit. The total rate of effectiveness was 97%. The longest course of treatment was 5 d & the shortest only 1 d. Most patients were treated in 2-3 sessions.

187#Lin JH (1986) Veterinary AP in Taiwan. AP Res Q (38):51-56. Veterinary AP is an ancient art of healing. In theory & application, it is similar to AP that is applied to man. It is a worthwhile subject to study because it has specific therapeutic effects on certain animal diseases & is simple to learn & apply. Veterinary AP has been commonly practised on Mainland China for thousands of years & is still widely used now. Its use in Taiwan, however, is very recent-within the past 12 yr. This article reviews the effects of AP on white scour of piglets & reproductive diseases in dairy cows & sows, & APA for surgery in animals performed in Taiwan.

188#Lin JH; Liu S; Chan W; Wu L; Pi W (1988) Effects of EAP & GnRH treatments on hormonal changes in anoestrous sows. AJCM 16(3-4):117-126. Dept Anim Husb, Nat Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Anoestrous sows with luteal ovaries were allocated to three groups: 1=EAP at Baihui & Weiken (n=4 sows); 2=EAP at Chiangfeng & Choushu (n=3 sows); 3=GnRH 50 ug i/v (n=4 sows). Return to oestrus was monitored during 14 d after treatment. At that time, the number of animals returned to oestrus were 3, 1 & 1 in groups 1, 2 & 3, respectively. Only treatment 1 seemed to induce oestrus. Changes of serum sex hormone levels support this conclusion. Serum LH levels fell for about 2 h after EAP both in groups 1 & 2, whereas those in group 3 rose sharply at 10 min, reached a peak at 20 min & returned gradually to basal level between 4-6 h after GnRH. Serum progesterone levels rose between 4-6 h after treatment in groups 1 & 3 but not in group 2. In total, 5 sows came in oestrus & showed a low progesterone level 2 d after treatments; the other six anoestrous sows did not show this change. E2 levels changed little during the blood sampling period of 5-7 d in these 3 groups. Cortisol levels rose in 15 min after EAP in groups 1 & 2. However, the EAP-induced increase in cortisol was less than that induced by the first bleeding, indicating that the therapeutic action of EAP in group 1 was not due to adrenal stimulation per se. EAP & GnRH injection can alter the release of LH from the pituitary in different ways but only EAP at Baihui & Weiken had a specific action on ovary & a significant therapeutic effect. Therapeutic effects of EAP on reproductive disorder may involve a synergism of somatic-ovary & uterus reflex & central nervous-endocrine system (the HPOA).

189#Lin JH; Panzer R (1990) To face some female animal reproductive problems with AP. Proceedings 5th AAAP Animal Science Congress, May 27-June 1, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Vol 2:305-322. Dept Anim Husb, Nat Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Also: Lin JH; Panzer R (1992) AP for reproductive disorders. Prob in Vet Med Mar 4(1):155-161. Dept of Animal Husbandry, Nat Taiwan Univ, Taipei, ROC. AP can give excellent results in reproductive disorders. Two physiologic mechanisms may explain its effects on the reproductive system: an endorphin-mediated mechanism affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis, & a direct effect on gonadal paracrine & autocrine control of steroidogenesis. This chapter discusses reproductive disorders from the perspectives of both WM & TCM, & details the use of AP to treat eight specific categories of reproductive dysfunction.

190#Lin PC; Liu YQ; Xing FJ (1994) [Preliminary investigation on the mechanisms of needling LI04 & SP06 for promoting parturition]. Chin AP Moxibust 14 (1):29-31. In the present study the mechanisms of AP for promoting parturition were preliminarily investigated. Experimental research proved that by needling SP06 & LI04 the oxytocic action was fulfilled by means of lowering the content of progesterone & elevating that of E2 in the blood of the pregnant women, & changing relative proportions of progesterone to oxytocin, & those between progesterone, female & male sex hormones. by AP at distant points (e.g. SP06 & LI04), by regulating the ratio between some hormones, which can maintain the pregnancy & start the onset of parturition, promotes parturition.

191#Lin YH (1988) [Laser irradiation-AP therapy in Obs&Gyn]. Zhejiang JTCM 23(9):428-429. Laser-AP was reviewed. Laser-AP uses a light-conducting fibre to irradiate AP points. It produces the same effect as AP but has advantages over AP, such as no pain, no infection, convenience & no side-effect. It has many applications in disorders of Obs&Gyn, such as pelvic inflammation, functional uterine bleeding, threatened abortion & leukoplakia vulvae & certain clinical effects have been achieved.

192#Lin YH; Fan HG (1987) [Current status of AP therapy of female genital diseases]. Fujian JTCM 18(1):60-61. The paper presented the status of AP in treating gynaecological diseases including: 1. inducing ovulation; 2. menorrhagia; 3. menorrhalgia; 4. pelvic inflammation; 5. leukoplakia vulvae; 6. prolapse of uterus; 7. complications after operation; 8. prevention & treatment of artificial abortion complex reaction, etc. Discovery of new point (as Yinfu) & application of laser needling may increase new contents of AP & its clinical therapeutic effect.

193#Liu EL; Li WF; Zhang WL (1990) Refractory enuresis treated by AP, moxibustion combined with Earpoint sticking therapy: Report of 101 cases. Heilongjiang TCM Mater Med (2):47-48. 1. Main points: CV04, GB20, Z_01. Helper points: CV06, ST29, SP06. 3-4 points were used/d by Bu Fa, the needle was retained for 30 min (manipulated every 5-10 min). 2. Vaccaria Seeds were taped on at Earpoints Shenmen, KI, BL, Ureter, HT, Subcortex, branch, Brain & Yiniao-Enuresis, & pressed for 3 min/time, 3-4 times/d. Both ears were treated alternately every 3 d. 3. Moxibustion at CV06, CV02, ST29, SP06, GV04, 5-10 min/point, once/d for 10 d/course. The above 3 methods were used simultaneously. After 2 courses of therapy, 92 cases (91%) were cured; 7 (7%) improved, 2 (2%) failed.

194#Liu LJ; Li QF; Du D (1996) [Clinical Observation on Treatment of hyperplasia of Mammary Glands with EAP at a Selected Day]. Chin AP Moxibust 16(4):7-8. In the present paper, EAP at a selected day was used for treating mammary hyperplasia & a routine EAP group & a Ru Pi Xiao group were used as control. Also, the levels of plasma prolactin were investigated before & after EAP treatment. Results indicated that the therapeutic effect in the day-elected EAP group was significantly higher than that in the Ru Pi Xiao group & did not have difference with that in the routine EAP group. The plasma prolactin content decreased markedly after treatment of EAP. It is suggested that the mechanism of AP treating this disease is possibly related with regulation of plasma prolactin level.

195#Liu LJ; Liu YG; Guo CJ (1994) [Hyperplasia of breast treated by means of EAP in 30 cases]. Chin AP Moxibust 14 (6):287-288. Thirty cases of hyperplasia of breast were treated with EAP & the total effective rate was 97%. Main points: ST15, CV17 & LI04 & some points were combined for certain symptoms. The optimal time to treat is on d 6-8, 13-15 & 22-27 after the menstrual period. After AP, the patients' menstrual cycle became regular, the breast lumps became softened & the mammary pain disappeared. Therapy could regulate the secretion of the HPOA & normalise its pattern. Therefore, it plays a good role in preventing the mammary cancer.

196#Liu SZ (1993) [Effects of Ear-plaster therapy on 1000 cases of dysmenorrhoea]. Chin AP Moxibust 13 (6):307-308. One thousand cases of dysmenorrhoea were treated with Ear-plaster therapy. Uterus, Intertragic Notch, Brain, Ovary & Shenmen were selected. The treat each ear alternatively once/3 d for chronic cases, & once/d for acute cases, 10 times/course. 817 cases (82%) were cured, 150 (16%) markedly improved, 20 (2.6%) improved, & 4 (0.4%) ineffective, with a total effective rate of 99%.

197#Liu XA; Zhang ZT (1986) [Mastitis treated by pricking blood therapy with 3-edged AP needle at back: Report of 512 cases]. Hubei JTCM (1):12.

198#Liu YT; Shi LZ; Huang WL (1984) [Neonatal neurobehavioral responses after AP & general anaesthesia for caesarean section]. 2nd Natl Symp AP-Mox & APA (Beijing):214. Caesarean section is a commonly-encountered operation in obstetrics & in the choice of anaesthesia the physiological effect of different anaesthesia on both mother & foetus should be taken into consideration. The anaesthetic effects in mother has been reported. The purpose of the present work is to study the effect of different anaesthesia on the changes of neurobehaviour in the neonates. 382 newborn infants were observed. Also: Liu YT; Shi LZ; Huang WL (1986) [Neonatal neurobehavioral responses after AP & general anaesthesia for caesarean section]. Chin AP Moxibust 6 (6):26-28. A total of 382 newborn infants under study were divided into three groups: 128 infants delivered under APA & 125 infants under general anaesthesia, & a control group for comparison. The neurobehavioral examination involved an assessment of various reflexes, muscle tone & power, HR, respiration & colour of skin. These items were graded according to Agpar & the data were evaluated by Ritid analysis that showed freedom from the depression of the neonatal neurobehaviour in APA. APA can be used as safely as local anaesthesia in obstetric operations. In general anaesthesia, the neonatal scores were less than those of both local & APA groups: there was significant difference as compared with above two groups. It might be due to transplacental transfer of general anaesthetic to depress the foetal & nervous system. Also: Liu YT; Shi LZ; Huang WL (1986) [Neonatal neurobehavioral responses after AP & general anaesthesia for caesarean section]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu (AP Res) 11 (1):33-35. 128 infants were delivered under APA & 125 infants under general anaesthesia. 129 infants delivered under local anaesthesia as a control. The neurobehavioral examination involved an assessment of various reflexes, muscle tone & power, HR, respiration & colour of skin. These items were scored according to Apgar & the data were evaluated by Ridit analysis. It showed that infants delivered under APA were free from the depression of the neonatal neurobehaviour & APA could be used locally as local anaesthesia in obstetric operations. In general anaesthesia group, the neonatal scores were less than those of both local & APA groups.

198.1#Liu YT, Xiao F, Liang XB (1993) An improved acupuncture method for the successful treatment of renal colic due to urolithiasis. Am J AP 21(4):323-326. Renal colic, severe pain in the flank or kidney area, is a typical symptom caused by kidney and/or ureteral stones. This report presents the results of the treatment of 38 renal colic patients with an improved acupuncture protocol. Complete relief of pain was attained in 100% of the study subjects (most within 3-5 min after the last needle was inserted), & expulsion of stones in 89%. Acupuncture therapy is, at present, the therapy of choice for such intense pain.

199#Liu Z (1993) [Impotence treated by AP therapy: Report of 62 cases]. Commun TCM Corresp Course 12(4):175. Before AP, patients were asked to relax the whole body, dispel distracting thoughts & enter a quiet state. With patients lying supine (face-up), 2" needles were inserted at CV04, CV03 or CV02 + KI12, with the tips pointing to the perineum. Manipulation was by lifting, thrusting & twirling until Deqi spread to the penis & prepuce. With patients lying prone (face-down), BL32 was needled to cause Deqi to spread to the perineum or penis. BL23 & GV04 + ST36, SP06 & KI03 were added. CV04, CV03 or CV02 & BL32 were needled with treating mentality method. After insertion, needles were manipulated to get Deqi. Patients were asked to observe the Qi carefully & pay full attention to the needled site. After Deqi (distending & warm sensations), needles were twirled counter-clockwise for 180 deg. Patients were asked to induce Qi to reach the affected area with idea & hold the Qi, make it gather together & yield a distending & warm sensation. Treatment was once/d, for 10 times/course. 41 cases were cured, 15 improved & 6 failed.

200#Liu ZH; Yang LD (1989) [Current status of AP therapy of male infertility]. J Gansu Coll TCM (4):40-42. The status of AP in treating male infertility since the early 50s was reviewed. 1. Aspermia (not including true aspermia due to loss of sperm function of testes by biopsy). The cases of sperms not excreted were treated by AP. 2. Abnormal sperm, including oligospermia & lower sperm function. 160 such patients were treated with AP. The total effective rate was 98%. 3. Impotence & low sexual function. BL23, CV04, GV03, KI02, KI07, ST36, SP06, etc. were selected. The total effective rate was 95%. 4. Defective ejaculation: AP & ginger moxibustion was applied. 152 cases were divided into 2 groups: (1) AP at CV03 & ginger moxibustion on CV04; (2) AP at BL23, BL32, BL34 & moxa at GV04. Treatments of the 2 groups were carried out alternatively for 15 sessions/course. The total effective rate was 82%. 48 follow-up cases, all showed ability of fertility. 5. In other reports, 248 cases of male infertility were treated. In cases of impotence (153 cases), defective ejaculation (45 cases), abnormal sperm (50 cases), the total effective rates were 71, 76 & 48% respectively.

201#Lu SX (1987) [Ear-pressure therapy of menorrhagia: Report of 90 cases]. Hebei JTCM 9 (3):17-18. Main points: KI, Adnexa, Pelvis, Endocrine, Adrenal, Subcortex, Ovary. Helper points: Diaphragm, LV, SP, HT, Lumbago. Tape (adhesive tape 0.5 cm2) a dried Vaccaria Seed at each Main point (+ Helper points if indicated). Have the patient press the seeds for 15-20 min. 3-4 times/d. The two ears are treated alternately every other d for 15 d. Of 90 patients treated, 64 showed markedly effective, 23 improved & 3 ineffective, with an overall effective rate of 98%.

202#Lu SX (1992) [Clinical situation on the treatment of acute medicine by AP of single point]. J AP Moxibust 8(1):47-49 Based on the medical literature of 1980-1991, the author summarised AP of single point in the treatment of the following diseases: angina pectoris, supraventricular paroxysmal tachycardia, auricular fibrillation, sinus arrhythmia, allergic shock, hypertension, syncope, haemoptysis, bronchial asthma, cough, gastroenteritis, bacillary dysentery, food poisoning, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, biliary ascariasis, urinary retention, colic due to calculus of urethra, hysteria, common cold, parotitis & malaria.

203#Lucio Sotte (1990) [Pathology of enuresis & its treatment with massage, AP, moxibustion & drugs]. Riv Ital Agopunt XXII(67):71-84. Enuresis originates from Xu of KI, SP, LU & TH. Main points: SP06 & CV03. For Xu of KI, one may add: BL23, GV04, BL28, KI03, KI01, CV06. For Xu of SP & LU, moxibustion is tried first, if ineffective, then AP is used. The acupoints are BL13 & BL20, plus ST36, SP09 & CV09. Occasionally, HT07, LV03, LV08 & TH06 can be used. As medicine, one may use Sangbiaoxiao San (Mantis Egg-case Powder) with the following prescription: Ootheca Mantidis (9-12), Stegodon Orientalis (10-20), Panax Ginseng, radix (6-9), Poria Cosos, Pararadicis (6-9), Acorus Gramineus, rhizoma (6-9), Polygala Tenuifolia, radix (3-6), Angelica Sinensis, radix (6-9), Plastrum Testudinis (6-9), Rubus Chingii, fructus (9-15), Aplina Oxiphylla, semen (3-9). For KI Xu, Suoquan Wan (Pill for Reducing Urination) may be used, prescription: Alpinia oxiphylla semen (9-12), Lindera Strienifolia radix (9-12), Dioscorea Opposita radix (9-12). In addition, there are also Jinsuo Gujing Wan (Golden Lock Pill for Keeping the KI Essence) & Yougui Wan (the KI Yang-Reinforcing Bolus).

204#Luo F (1992) [The clinical use of KI04 point]. J Zhejiang TCM Coll 16(3):50. KI04 conjoined with PC04 may treat depression; with KI03 may treat menopausal syndrome; with BL64 may treat dysuria; with BL58 may treat Xu-Type constipation; with GB37 may treat ophthalmopathy. A proved case was annexed to each of these applications.

205#Luo GL (1993) [AP therapy for postpartum dysuria & urine retention]. Shaanxi J Chin Tradit Med 14(6):272. Needling with even manipulation with twisting & twirling was used at CV03, CV04 & KI12 obliquely to the direction of pubic symphysis until Deqi spread to the vulva. Needling with Bu Fa-Xie Fa by lifting & thrusting was used at ST36 & SP06. AP by Xie Fa (lifting & thrusting) was added at LV03 in cases with perineal pain, or after perineal surgery. The needles were retained for 30 min, once/d. Alleviation was obtained in all 50 cases.

206#Luo WY (1988) [Enuresis treated by injections of atropine at points: Report of 29 cases]. J Shaanxi Coll TCM 11(1):30. Method: Atropine 1 mg is injected into the bilateral SP06. Cured 20 cases, failed 9 cases. Atropine dilates the bladder sphincter; it controls enuresis after point injection by regulating the BL through the SP & KI.

207#Luo YN; Han CH; Le Z (1993) [Clinical investigation on AP at points BL54 & SP06 in the treatment of chronic prostatitis due to Xu of SP & KI]. Chin AP Moxibust 13 (6):281-284. In this study, AP at BL54 & SP06 as a therapeutic method to treat chronic prostatitis due to Xu of SP & KI was tested in 100 cases, & was proved to be effective. Seven items including prostatic fluid were tested & compared before & after AP. There was a statistically significant difference in therapeutic effects between the patients treated with AP & those with orally administered compound sinomin (p<.01). Besides, the present therapy, with the total effective rate of 92%, is side effect free & quick in producing therapeutic effects.

208#Lyrenas S, Lutsch H, Hetta J, Lindberg B (1987) AP before delivery: effect on parturition. Gynecol Obstet Invest 24 (4):217-224. Dept of Obs&Gyn, Uppsala Univ, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Sweden. AP treatment in the final weeks of pregnancy has been claimed to shorten the duration of parturition in primipara. The length of the various phases of parturition was calculated for 56 primiparous women who were repeatedly treated with manual AP in the month prepartum. In vaginally delivering women, the average lengths of the latent & active phase & the second stage of parturition were 4.1, 3.4 & 1.4 h, respectively. In an untreated control group of 112 primiparous women, the corresponding durations were 4.4, 3.5 & 1.1 h. AP treatment before delivery did not shorten the delivery time. Instead, AP seemed to lengthen pregnancy & to prolong parturition, for there was a positive correlation between the number of AP treatments given & the length of gestation, second-stage parturition & total delivery time. The effect of AP may be the opposite to that suggested by others, i.e. it lengthens pregnancy as well as delivery time & does not reduce the duration of parturition.

209#Lyren§s S; Lutsch H; Hetta J; Nyberg F; Willdeck-Lundh G; Lindberg B (1990) AP before delivery: effect on pain perception & the need for analgesics. Gynecol Obstet Invest 29(2):118-124. Dept of Obs&Gyn, Uppsala Univ, Sweden. Pain experience & the amount of analgesics needed during parturition were studied in 32 primiparous women who had received repeated treatment with AP (AP) during the month prepartum & in 16 untreated primiparous women. The women's psychological profiles were evaluated by a psychiatric interview at wk 38 of pregnancy. Treatment with AP did not reduce the need for analgesics in parturition. During parturition, all women experienced successively rising pain irrespective of whether or not they had been treated with AP before parturition or delivered under local anaesthesia. Experience of pain was not reduced in subjective assessments in women treated with AP. There was a strong correlation between assessments of pain made during parturition & 6 mo after delivery. In the group that did not receive AP, CSF dynorphin A was significantly lower in parturients who chose epidural anaesthesia.

210#Ma H; Jiang E; Zhao X (1992) [The effect of AP on the level of Substance-P in serum of gravida during delivery]. Jinzhou Med Coll, Liaoning. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu 17(1):65-66. We determined the level of Substance-P in the serum of 56 gravida with RIA before & after AP during the active period of the delivery. AP may reduce the level of Substance-P in the serum of the gravida; that may play a role in the analgesic effect of AP.

211#Ma RH; Ji P; Wang Y (1996) [Clinical Study on Treatment of Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis by Combination of Laser-AP with Injection of Shuang Huanglian into the Gland]. Chin AP Moxibust 16 (8):8-10. Thirty-five cases of chronic bacterial prostatitis were treated by combination of laser-AP with injection of Shuang Huanglian into the gland, who were regarded as treatment group. Thirty-three cases were treated by combination of laser-AP with injection of cafamezin into the gland, who were regarded as control group. The cured rate was 85.7% in the treatment group & 51.5% in the control group with a very significant difference (p<.01). After treatment, improvement of main symptoms in the treatment group was superior to that in the control group (p<.001).

212#Ma XP (1986) [Refractory emission treated by AP chiefly at CV01: Report of 12 cases]. Jiangsu JTCM 7 (11):27. CV01 is selected as main point & Helper points were selected according to Differentiation of Syndromes. a. Spermatorrhoea due to KI Xu: KI03, ST36; b. Spermatorrhoea due to Damp & Heat attack of the Lower Jiao: SP09 & ST44. Needle CV01 directly, then twist & rotate at a depth of 1.5-2". Mild Bu Fa-Xie Fa is used at other points. Treat every 1-2 d. Needle is retained for 20-30 min & manipulated every 5-7 min. Of 12 cases, 11 had no spermatorrhoea & one improved after AP.

213#Malkov Ia Iu; Biserova NN (1989) [Uterine contractile activity in parturients of a group at risk for prolonged pregnancy prepared for parturition by AP reflexotherapy]. Akush Ginekol (Mosk) (11):30-34. Prenatal preparation by using AP was studied for effects on the clinical course & uterine contractility in 181 parturients who were at a high risk for prolonged pregnancy. With prenatal AP, parturition occurred in time in most parturients. 7 (3.8%) parturitions were delayed, 4 babies were born having signs of postmaturity. Antenatal amniotic fluid discharge was seen in 19 of the parturients, uterine inertia occurred in 19, 8, Caesarean deliveries were observed in 24 parturients. Internal tocographic assessment of uterine contractility revealed higher amplitudes, which contributed to the favourable course of parturitions. AP favoured term parturition in the pregnant females, the pattern of uterine contractility showed no changes during the delivery.

214#Mao QH (1993) [Outline on the treatment of diseases in paediatrics by AP at single acupoint]. Jiangxi JTCM 24(3):173-174. This paper reviews clinical application of AP at single point from 1) treatment of infantile internal diseases (pulmonary system, digestive system, urinary system etc.); 2) treatment of infantile surgical diseases (infantile rectal prolapse, inguinal hernia, scrotal hydrocele of tunica vaginalis); & 3) comments.

215#Martensson L; Lundqvist E (1993) [AP during pregnancy & delivery: a midwife's concern (letter)]. Jordemodern May 106(5):162-163. No abstract online.

216#Matsuda T (1984) [Clinical study of nocturia]. Channel AP Ther 16(12):49-52. Treatment of nocturia is 80-90% effective, depending on the treatment of the main aspect, or the TCM Differentiation of the disease. Main symptomatic points in any Syndrome are GV04, BL31, BL32, CV03 & KI12. Nocturia in cases with Yin constitution is characterised by enuresis during deep sleep, either with large amount or with frequent times nightly. Yin Types are mostly Xu Syndromes of interaction between LV & LU, LV & SP, LU & LV, & SP & LV, frequent enuresis being mainly in LV Xu. Enuresis in cases with Yang constitution is early in the morning before wake-up, usually during dreaming. Yang Types are mostly LU Xu & LV Shi or SP Xu & LV Shi; this kind of nocturia can be cured in a short course of treatment, sometimes after only several sessions. For children pain should be avoided & overuse of AP is not appropriate. For cases with mainly LV Syndrome besides AP at BL17 & BL18, reduction of misaligned lumbar vertebrae & sacroiliac joints is essential. For cases with mainly SP Syndrome, AP is needed at CV13, CV12 & CV10 to regulate changes of the appetite. Moxibustion at points GV04 & CV03 & L_09-(Nuxi-Woman's Knee) Point is markedly effective.

217#Milani L (1976) [Cases of nocturnal enuresis treated with single reflexotherapy: Clinical & therapeutic evaluation- Article in Italian]. Minerva Med Nov 24; 67(57):3753-3756. Treatment of children with nocturnal enuresis by AP, Earpoint therapy, etc. is reported. The aetiopathogenetic background, the results of treatment, & the neurophysiological mechanisms through which the action of reflexotherapy can be explained are discussed.

218#Milchev N; Krutov G; Piperkov T (1992) [The use of low-energy lasers via action on the AP points in inflammatory processes in the female adnexa]. Akush Ginekol (Sofia) 31(2):25-27. This is a report of the clinical effect of low-energy laser-AP in female adnexitis. 60 women with subacute & chronic adnexitis were assigned to 2 treatment groups (n=30/group): 1=Laser-AP, via irradiation of biologically active points and; 2=Conventional therapy. Patients treated by laser-AP spent 3 d less in hospital than the other patients did, & their pain symptoms disappeared quickly. Laser-AP at biologically active points for subacute & chronic adnexitis has a role in gynaecological practice.

219#Miljkovic V; Pavlovic V; Petrujkic T; Mrvos G (1993) Neural-therapy of Infertility in Cows Caused by Uterine Adnexitis. Acta Vet Beograd 43(2-3):113-119. V Miljkovic, Fac Vet Med, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Chronic adnexitis often is due to dystocia, uterine trauma & placental retention (RFM). It has a long duration & is difficult to diagnose because of its subclinical form, unless adhesions of the ovaries, uterine horns & peritoneum develop. It produces long-lasting sterility manifested in constant abortions. From 1989-1991 we treated 208 black & white Holstein-Friesian cows or Simmentals on dairy farms in Vojvodina & Kosovo & Metohia for infertility, using neural-therapy (pharmaco-AP) with paracervical injections of Impletol. The cause of infertility was chronic subclinical or clinical adnexitis, diagnosed by subsequent rectovaginal examinations & anamnesis (para- & perimetritis), uteroperitoneal adhesions paracervical abscesses, constantly repeated estruses. The cows had been infertile for 120-265 d postpartum; most calvings had been difficult & complicated, accompanied by RFM, puerperal infections & intoxications, purulent endometritis or paracervical abscesses. Most had been treated unsuccessfully for long periods by intrauterine infusions of Lotagen & Lugol, accompanied by parenteral antibiotics, Catosal, vitamins A, D3, E, PGF2-a, GnRH etc. Overall herd mean milk yield was 4500-7000 l/yr. Neural-therapy (pharmaco-AP using paracervical injections of Impletol) was given immediately after establishing correct diagnoses, & was repeated after 15 d. Paracervical Impletol has a dual effect: neural-therapy & pharmaco-AP. Impletol contains 40 ml of 5% procaine hydrochloride & 3 ml of 50% caffeine Na benzoate with redistilled water made up to 100 ml. Impletol was injected via a 50 cm needle, 3-5 cm deep, just beside the mouth of the cervix on both sides. After therapy 47% of cows became pregnant & calved normally. The good results of pharmaco-AP with Impletol recommend it for wider use in chronic adnexitis.

220#Miller K (1993) Concomitant nonpharmacologic therapy in the treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis. Clin Pediatr (Phila) Jul; Spec No:32-37. Christ Hospital & Medical Centre, Oak Lawn, Illinois. Some 5 to 7 million children in the United States suffer from primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE). Although the majority of parents do not seek medical evaluation & treatment for their children with PNE, physicians usually prescribe pharmacotherapy for this condition. Several nonpharmacologic treatments are available also, including bladder-stretching exercises, behavioural therapy, hypnotherapy, & elimination diets. Motivational counselling, another technique, should be a component of all PNE treatment programs. Although none of the methods offers effective resolution of night-time incontinence in all children, combining methods increases the probability of treatment success & encourages compliance without risk to the child. Any programme requires active participation of the patient & his or her family & the guidance, education, & reinforcement provided by the physician. Although health-care professionals may need devote considerable time to help the patient, successful treatment may prevent the development of potentially serious psychosocial effects.

221#Mimori K (1984) [Breast care at the Mimori Midwifery Clinic: a midwife's care in co-operation with an acupuncturist/masseur - Article in Japanese]. Josanpu Zasshi 1984 Jul; 38(7):578-83.

222#Minh L (1984) [Emergencies in pregnancy & postpartum]. Rev Fr AP 10 (37):19-30. A study of functional disorders occurring during pregnancy & postpartum, directly related to pregnancy & implying the obstetrician's intervention. An adequate energetic therapy is required in order to avoid immediate or delayed impairment of mother and/or child condition. For each one of these diseases, the aetiopathogenic mechanism is developed, leading to TCM-oriented AP treatment.

223#Minni B; Capozza N; Caione P (1988) Bladder instability & enuresis treated by AP & electro-therapeutics: early urodynamic observations. AP Electrother Res 13(4):247. 20 children, from 5-12 yr-old, with enuresis & bladder instability underwent a urodynamic study (cystometrogram) before & after AP (at intervals of 30', 60', & 24 h). Points used: SP06, SP10 & CV04. The points used for EAP were: BL23, BL28, CV04, & KI03. In 16/20 children we observed a net increase in the intensity & frequency of uninhibited bladder contractions continuously measured by the cystometrogram 30' after AP. At 60' the contractions were diminished & at 24 h they had practically disappeared. All the children continued AP treatment (once/wk). Clinically, we observed a gradual elimination of enuresis in 10 cases & an improvement on the other 10 (in 1-9 sessions). From these early observations, the efficiency of AP in suppressing uninhibited bladder contractions seems to be proved, even though the therapeutic mechanism has yet to be clarified. Also: Minni B; Capozza N; Creti G; De Gennaro M; Caione P; Bischko J (1990) Bladder instability & enuresis treated by AP & electrotherapeutics: early urodynamic observations. AETRIJ 15(1):19-25. Dept of Paediatric Urol, Ospedale Bambino Gesu, Vatican Hospital Rome, Italy. This was a study on 20 children suffering from a particular type of enuresis, associated with bladder instability, characterised by uninhibited contractions of the detrusor muscle. Selected children had symptoms of enuresis, frequency, urinary urgency & a positive urodynamic test. This test was performed on 11 cases before & after AP. In 16/20 children, a net increase in the intensity & frequency of uninhibited bladder contractions occurred 30 min after AP. At 60 min the contractions decreased & at 24 h they had practically disappeared. Clinically, enuresis was eliminated gradually in 11 cases & other 7 cases improved. AP suppressed uninhibited bladder contractions, even though the therapeutic mechanism has yet to be clarified.

224#Mo XM; Li D; Pu YX (1991) [A clinical study on the effect of AP on ovulation & its mechanism]. Pap Inter Cong Tradit Med (Beijing '91):124-125. BL18, BL23, CV04, CV03, SP06 etc. were used to treat 34 patients suffering from disturbed ovulation. Certain needling techniques (Bu Fa) were performed to reinforce LV & KI, regulate the Chongmai & CV Channels, nourish the uterus, & facilitate the functions of the "reproductive axis of physiology" & normalise the ovulation. After one course of treatment (30 sessions in average), the symptoms of all the patients were more or less relieved, the marked effective rate was 35% & the total effective rate was 82%. 2/34 became pregnant. Meanwhile, indices of clinical examinations, such as BBT, VS, CMS, & Ultrasonic B all improved to some extent. AP could dually adjust FSH, LH & E2 & raise the level of blood progesterone, normalising the indices. Also, animal trials confirmed these results. AP can facilitate ovulation by producing certain favourable regulation on the endocrine functions of the HPOA. The outcome of this research may provide some scientific basis for further study & better treatment of ovulation disorder. Also: Mo X; Li D; Pu Y; Xi G; Le X; Fu Z (1993) Clinical studies on the mechanism for AP stimulation of ovulation. JTCM Jun 13(2):115-119. Zhejiang Coll of TCM, Hangzhou, PRC. Ovulatory dysfunction is commonly seen in gynaecology. It may cause infertility, amenorrhoea, functional uterine bleeding & a variety of complications. This research according to TCM theory records treating with AP 34 patients suffering from ovulatory dysfunction. Changes in clinical symptoms & some relative targets are reported, plus findings in animal experiments. The effect of AP in improving ovulation & the rationale are discussed. According to TCM theory concerning the generative & physiologic axis of women, this research involved the following points: BL18, BL23, CV04, CV03 & SP06. Reinforcement (Bu Fa) & reducing (Xie Fa) methods of AP enables it to strengthen LV & KI. Through the Chongmai & CV Channels it nourishes uterus to adjust the patient's axis function & recover ovulation. Treated circa 30 times, the patients' symptoms improved to varying degrees; 35% were markedly improved & the total effective rate was 82%. BBT, VS, CMS, & B ultrasonic picture all improved to some degree. AP may adjust FSH, LH, & E2 in 2 directions & raise the progesterone level, bringing them to normal. Animal experiments confirmed this result. AP may adjust endocrine function of the HPOA of women, thus stimulating ovulation. The results provide some scientific basis for treating & further studying this disorder.

225#Morrison JF, Sato A, Sato Y, Suzuki A (1995) Long-lasting facilitation & depression of periurethral skeletal muscle following AP-like stimulation in anaesthetised rats. Neurosci Res Sep; 23(2):159-169. Dept of Physiology, Univ of Leeds, UK. The effects of AP-like stimulation on the tone of the partially filled bladder & on the periurethral electromyogram (EMG) were examined in urethane-anaesthetised rats. AP-like stimuli were usually applied to the skin & underlying muscles (or other structures), either separately or together, for a period of 1 min; the effects were studied in spinal cord intact & in spinalised animals. Maps have been constructed showing the effects of AP-like stimulation at different sites on the body surface & of similar stimulation applied to individual muscles, the urethra & the testis. When AP-like stimuli were applied to the skin & underlying structures, in the rostral half of the body & the hindpaw, testis or urethra, these stimuli usually induced excitation of periurethral EMG activity. Depression of EMG activity was seen predominantly during stimulation of structures close to the urethra, but not opposed to it. When AP-like stimuli were applied only to structure beneath the skin, depression of EMG activity usually occurred. AP-like stimulation of the bulbocavernosus, which partly overlies the proximal urethra produced depression of EMG activity in 50% of trials, but the incidence of similar effects from the more distant pubococcygeus, or the dorsal or ventral sacrococcygeal muscles was about 90-100%. AP-like stimulation for 1 min could produce either excitation or depression of periurethral EMG activity lasting about 5 or 6 min, depending on the site of insertion & rotation of the AP needles. Excitation of short duration (<3 min) was consistently observed from areas of the body distant to the bladder, i.e. the nose, forepaw, forelimb, chest, abdominal wall & hindpaw. Longer lasting excitation of EMG activity was often seen from the penile urethra, perineal area & hindlimb. Depression of EMG activity with a duration of more than 3 min was consistently seen from the muscles at the base of the tail (sacrococcygeus) & perineal area (pubococcygeus & bulbocavernosus). The bladder was partially filled in these experiments, so that micturition contractions were never seen; AP-like stimulation of the perineal area induced some increase in bladder tone in 40% of trials. In spinalised animals, the pattern of activity induced by AP-like stimulation was similar to that seen in spinal cord intact animals & the duration of the effects were not significantly different in these two groups. The distribution of sites from which AP-like stimuli can influence the activity of the lower urinary tract is discussed.

226#Nazarishvili GI, Kunchuliia TF, Samkina EN, Gagua GA, Chkhotua AB (1990) [The urodynamics of the lower urinary tract & central nervous system function during the reflexotherapy of patients with nocturnal enuresis- Article in Russian]. Urol Nefrol (Mosk) Nov; 6:13-16. Uroflowmetry showed impaired urodynamics of the lower urinary tract in 116/147 cases with nocturnal enuresis; 99 cases had high values of maximal volumetric urination rates; the curve of an uroflowgram had a configuration characteristic of the disease; 60 cases had EEG characteristics of brain dysfunction. After AP-type reflex therapy, the EEG normalised in 31 cases & tended to normalise in 8. AP-type reflex therapy did not alter EEG in cases with normal EEG before therapy but tended to normalise those whose EEGs were abnormal before therapy.

228#Ni SJ; Li XY (1992) [The analgesic effect of AP on endometriosis patients]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 11 (1):16-17. 1. Somatic AP. Point selection: CV03, CV04, CV06, SP06. Thrusting-lifting manipulation with normal Bu Fa-Xie Fa. Needles are retained for 20 min. Such treatment was carried out once/wk. 2. Ear-AP. Point selection: Luanchao (Ovary), Sympathetic nerve, Endocrine. Needles are embedded 1-2 d before or during menstruation, or Dried Vaccaria seeds taped on the Earpoints & pressed >10 times/d, each time 15-20 pressings/point. 3. Moxa at SP01, SP09, SP08. Each time 1-2 points were selected arbitrarily & each point was cauterised for 10-15 min. When there is Cold-pain in the lower abdomen moxa is used with AP. After 2-3 AP sessions, Ear-AP was performed, & these constitute a therapeutic course. After 1-3 courses, 4 cases were cured, 29 clearly improved, 17 improved & 4 unchanged; total effective rate was 93%.

229#Nilsson M (1993) [AP for analgesia during childbirth]. Jordemodern Jul-Aug 106(7-8):246-267. No abstract online.

230#Nuske S (1996) Investigations on the Change of Skin Temperature in the Area of AP points Correlated with the Female Genital System of Dairy-Cows. Wien Tierarztl Monatsschr 83(2):51-59. S Nuske, Hubertusstr 12, D-85764 Oberschleissheim, Germany. In 56 German Simmental & Holstein-Friesian cows non-contact skin temperature measurements with infrared thermometry have been taken at AP points correlated to the female genital system. Skin temperature at AP points is markedly different to the temperature of non-AP points in the same area. The positive or negative deviation & the range of temperature differences to non-AP points do not allow any significant diagnostic interpretation.

231#Okamura Y (1988) [Electrostimulation therapy in Obs&Gyn, especially about climacteric symptom]. Orient Med Pain Clin 18(1):7-11. Since 1976, round plate electrotherapy was used to give mild pulse-ES to cerebral cortex (esp. frontal lobe) to treat continuous anovulatory cycle. This successfully induced ovulation by promoting the secretion of endogenous gonadotropin. 27 cases had ovulation & 5 cases were pregnant. When inducing ovulation by this method, excretion of luteotropic hormone in the urine increases. In one 31-yr-old patient with unidentified complaints, SSP therapy was used at ST36, SP06, LI04, LI11, one treatment/wk. After two sessions, the CMI, MAS & score of vegetative nerve symptom improved. Another 34-yr-old unidentified complaints patient had the above indicators improved after 7 treatments & a 45-yr-old climacteric syndrome improved after 12 treatments.

232#Parshutin NP; Korsakov SG (1990) [Comparative analysis of the data of AP electrodiagnosis & hormonal status of women with oligomenorrhoea]. Akush Ginekol (Mosk) Jun 6:26-29. This study, in oligomenorrhoeic women, compared AP electrodiagnostic & hormonal data of before & after an AP regimen. Patients were assigned to 3 groups according to pretreatment hormonal status: 1=Ovarian hypofunction; 2=Ovarian hypofunction+hyperandrogenism; 3=Ovarian hypofunction+functional hyperprolactinemia. AP treatment normalised the hormonal status in all 3 groups. The hormonal status of oligomenorrhoeic patients correlated with conductivity of the skin at biologically active AP points.

233#Pei TF; Yao XL; Liu SZ (1992) [The influence of needling GV20 with reinforcing & reducing method on the content of plasma cyclonucteotide in early follicular phase of healthy childbearing women]. Chin AP Moxibust 12 (1):36-38. To study the influence of AP on the content of cyclonucleotide in the early follicular plasma of healthy childbearing women, the authors conducted the experiment on 21 cases. The level of cyclonucleotide in plasma of healthy childbearing women is fairly low 3-5 d after the menstruation. AP by Bu Fa differed from that of Xie Fa. AP at GV20 with Bu Fa further decreased cAMP & cGMP, but the ratio between cAMP & cGMP raised. However, Xie Fa gave no remarkable change. The level of cyclonucleotide in early follicular plasma of healthy childbearing women is optimal in low concentration.

234#Peng M (1989) [Dr. Peng's experience in the treatment of enuresis with eye AP]. Liaoning JTCM 13(12):26. Based on the enuresis-related points of eye (? BL) Channel, patients with obstinate enuresis were treated with various degrees of success.

235#Peng XH (1984) [AP in the treatment of mumps: Report of 23 cases]. Jiangxi JTCM Pharmacol (5):53. Main points: TH17, ST06 & LI04. If there is fever, plus LI11; & adding LU11 to bleed for swelling & pain, plus LV03 & SP06 for testicle swelling & pain. Needles were used with Xie Fa, once/d for 3 d. In 23 cases, there were 21 cured, one improved & one not effective.

236#Perschke O (1989) [Combination of Gleditsch's Oral-AP & Buchheit's gynaecologic AP]. Dtsch Z Akupunkt (DZA) 32 (6):129-32. Oral-AP by Gleditsch & gynaecological AP by Buchheit represent a real enrichment. Both are effective if used either just on their own or also, in combination with the normal form of body AP, or with Ear-AP. The intention of the author is, to give directions for application of these special forms of AP in order to be successful especially in those cases, which are difficult to treat.

237#Petrov VA; Osetrov AA; Kharenko NI; Shul'ga VA (1991) EAP in treatment of endometritis in cows. Veterinariya Moskva 7:54-55.

237.1#Popivanov P (1983) [Menopausal indices as criteria for the effectiveness of AP treatment of the climacteric syndrome - Article in Bulgarian]. Vutr Boles 22(6):110-113. 10 females with climacteric syndrome (CS) were treated by AP. The basic therapy used PC06, SP04, LI04 & ST36. To determine the severity of CS & the effect of AP treatment, 5 of the most often applied menopause indices (MI) in the hormonal treatment of CS were used (Copperman, Blatt-modification of Neugarten & Kreins: Jones, Marshall & Nordin: Wenderlein & Striker). As determined by MI, AP gave favourable clinical results, similar to those reported using hormonal treatment of CS. Thus, MIs are suitable criteria to objectify the effect of AP treatment of climacteric syndrome.

238#Qi RM; Xia YQ (1988) [Clinical observation of 100 cases of patients with leukoplakia vulvae treated by Electrothermic-AP]. Chin AP Moxibust 8(3):12-14. This paper reports 100 cases of leukoplakia vulvae treated by Electrothermic-AP, in which 88 were cured, 8 were markedly improved & 2 improved; total effective rate was 98%. Electrothermic-AP had excellent therapeutic effect in leukoplakia vulvae. It can raise body immunity, & clearly increase the level of E-RFC.

239#Qin GZ (1993) [Progress in treatment of male diseases with AP in recent 10 years]. Chin AP Moxibust 13 (6):320-324. The paper discusses: 1) treatment methods; 2) advances in AP treatment of impotence, defective ejaculation, infertility, chronic prostatitis, eczema of scrotum, hernia, epididymoorchitis, spermatorrhoea, flaccid constriction of penis & other diseases; 3) the importance of needle manipulation to induce Deqi to spread to the target areas.

240#Qiu XT (1988) Experience in treating the pigmentation on women's faces before & after delivery. J Chin AP Moxibust [UK] 1 (3-4):60. Facial pigmentation is common in woman before & after parturition. As it appears around both sides of nose like butterfly, it is also called butterfly speckle. Since 1979, our hospital has treated 14 cases, with good therapeutic effect. Main points: LI20, ST02, ST07, ST06, LI04. Manipulation: Bu Fa (reinforcing method). Supplement Shu points & operations. For those with depression of LV Qi, points like PC06 & LV03 should be needled with Xie Fa (reducing method). In Xu of SP & ST, Bu Fa should be used on ST36, SP04 while ST36 would be needled by Bu Fa, with moxa on CV06 for Xu of Qi-Xue. After puncturing those with either Xu of SP & ST or Xu of Qi-Xue for 5 times, Vit B12 should be injected at the same points once/2 d, for 19 times/course. At each session, inject two points with 0.5 ml/point. Results were good in all 14 cases.

227# Recours-Nguyen C (1987) [New & extra acupoints used in gynaecology]. Rev Fr Med Tradit Chin (125):306-308. The nomenclature, location & therapeutic indications of new acupoints & extra acupoints commonly used in gynaecology were introduced. These include: for amenorrhoea use Y_11-Jingzhong (3" lateral to CV06), KI14 or Y12-Waishimen (1.5" lateral to CV05) & Y_18-Zigong (3" lateral to CV03; for clitoral pain, use Y_17-Changyi (2.5" lateral to CV03); for pelvic pain use NY04-Tito (4" lateral to CV04). Also, some new & extra acupoints commonly used in the treatment of dystocia, loss of sexual desire, ovarian cyst, leucorrhoea, polymenorrhoea, oophoritis, endometritis, prolapse of uterus, irregular menstruation & sterility were also introduced. In total 42 new & extra acupoints distributed at regions of the abdomen, lumbosacral, lower limbs, occiput, neck & hand were introduced.

241#Recours-Nguyen C (1988) [Perineum-vagina pain]. Rev Fr Med Tradit Chin (129):175-177. Perineum-vagina pain means spasmodic pain, pricking-like pain, bearing-down pain at anus-perineum-vagina region. Definition of perineum-vagina pain, its local physiology & pathophysiology in TCM, clinical symptoms & therapies are discussed. This region is related to GB, LV, KI, ST, CV & GV Channels. Satisfactory therapeutic effects will be gained with for Cold Syndrome, to enforce KI-yin, by selecting BL23, CV04, BL18, BL19, LV02, LV03, LV08, GB43 & GB40; for Damp Syndrome, to enforce SP by selecting SP02, SP03 & BL20. For those caused by psychic factors, select GV20, Z_03, CV17, HT07 as main points; for climacteric patients with KI-Yin Xu, select BL23, CV04, GV04 as main points, those with KI-Yang Xu select GV04, CV04, BL52 & SP10, CV06, ST36, BL20, BL18, BL13; for puerperal patients select LV03, LV08, KI07, SP02, SP10, SP06, CV04 as main points; for those with perineal rupture or episiotomy etc., select CV06, CV04, KI11, SP01, BL62 as sole points; for those with local injuries caused by masturbation or frequent anal coition, select KI03, KI07, as main points; & select KI12, BL23, GV04, CV04 for contracted vagina pain & extra points near CV03 for clitoris pain. During the first visits EAP may be applied at some points for reducing pain. Such as CV06, CV04, KI11 through ST30, however, Deqi should reach the pelvis; besides, SP06, ST36, LV03 etc., could also be used.

242#Ren SZ (1984) [He-Ne laser used in paediatric AP]. 2nd Natl Symp AP-Mox & APA (Beijing):143-144. He-Ne laser has been used in number of paediatric diseases, namely, enuresis, frequent micturition, infantile diarrhoea, facial paralysis, sprain, etc. 84/121 cases were cured, 24 cases markedly improved, 12 cases improved & 1 case failed. GZ-2 He-Ne laser-AP was used, 3-5 min/point. Wavelength was 6328 A, output power, 3.0-5.5 mW, once/d, for 3-12 times/course. Points were chosen according to the TCM theories.

243#Ren SZ (1987) [He-Ne laser AP in the treatment of enuresis]. Chin AP Moxibust 7(6):20. Dept of AP, Beijing Children's Hospital. Enuresis in children was treated by Laser-AP, using He-Ne laser usually at CV04, CV03, CV06, SP06 & GV20. 26/53 cases were cured; total effective rate was 85%. The effects of Laser-AP did not differ significantly (p>.05) from those of traditional AP. We can use Laser-AP beam, or needles, to stimulate the acupoints to treat diseases.

244#Richardson J, Brennan AM (1995) Complementary therapy in the NHS: service development in a local district general hospital. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery Jun; 1 (3):89-92. Health Service Research & Evaluation Unit, Lewisham Hospital NHS Trust, Lewisham Hospital, London, UK. The Lewisham Hospital Complementary Therapy Centre opened in July 1994 to provide an NHS osteopathy, AP & homeopathy service to patients referred by general practitioners & hospital consultants. This centre provides a development opportunity for a Nurse Practitioner role that combines clinical & educational responsibilities with research & service development. Funded by the local Health Authority as a pilot scheme, the service attracted over 600 referrals in the first three mo. Patients seem to feel the service is beneficial in treating conditions such as arthritis, back pain & gynaecological problems.

245#Riegler R; Fischl F; Bunzel B (1984) [Correlation of psychological changes & spermiograms improvements after AP]. Urologe (A) 23 (6):329-333. The purpose of the study was to find the correlation between the effect of AP on fertility & psychological effects. To investigate its influence on male subfertility, 28 patients received AP treatment after informed consent. We evaluated subjective parameters by written psychological tests, while objective parameters consisted of measuring concentration, volume & motility in the spermiogram before & after AP. There was a significant increase in sperm quality in all parameters but volume. The psychological test showed no change caused by AP. The effect of AP on sperm quality is not caused by placebo-mechanisms.

246#Riegler R; Fischl F; Holzmann A (1986) [AP treatment in gynaecology with particular consideration of pain]. Der Akupunkturarzt Aurikulotheraput (5):126-135. They reviewed the papers of Bischko, Stux, Stiller, Jayasuriya, Stiefater & so on as to the indications for body AP in gynaecology (dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, amenorrhoea, uterovaginal prolapse, pruritus vulvae, climacteric, salpingitis, adnexitis, cervicitis, vaginitis & other pelvic inflammatory diseases). They summarised their own data on the treatment of chronic pain of mammary origin & subfertility in men.

247#Rogers PAM (1984) Top Ten Points for selected Conditions. Ex ADA database (unpublished)

248#Rogers PAM (1997) Amalgamated Data: Top Ten Points for major Body Functions, Organs & Parts. Web Journal of AP. AP therapy is by stimulation of relevant reflex points in the skin & muscles. Points tender to palpation are important. They are the AhShi or Trigger points (TPs). Stimulation is given to the TPs, paravertebral (Shu) points, & points related to specific areas, organs or functions, e.g. local & distant points on Channels through affected area. Data from >66 textbooks & clinical articles were stored on a Hewlett Packard Minicomputer. Frequency-ranked prescriptions for >1100 clinical headings were generated from the database. The "Top Ten" points for selected body regions/organs & common signs/symptoms are given. These include the major systems, including the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, reproductive, urogenital & musculoskeletal systems.

248.1#Rogers PAM (1999) Acupuncture in the treatment of herpes & postherpetic neuralgia: An edited Bibliography []. On May 29 1999, Acupuncture Progress [ (terminated since then)] output 50 abstracts that dealt with herpes. The abstracts, edited slightly to standardise the terminology & point names, were listed alphabetically. Those with practical details of therapy were summarised. The bibliography has five elements: 1. Summary of all treatments used in Herpes; 2. Summary of the AP- & related- methods in Herpes; 3. Summary of the acupoints used in Herpes; 4. Other keywords, hyperlinked to the relevant abstracts; 5. Edited abstracts, sorted alphabetically. Within the references, those asterisked (*) have the relevant keyword, or its concept, in the title of the paper. A large body of evidence suggests AP-type therapy to be of great benefit in treating acute or early cases of herpes, especially in the first dew days when the lesions are present. AP-type therapy, as the sole treatment of chronic cases, has not been adequately shown to be of benefit. It may have a role if combined with amitriptyline, topical capsaicin & TENS.

249#Roje-Starcevic M (1990) The treatment of nocturnal enuresis by AP. Neurologija 39(3):179-184. Univ Hospital, Zagreb. The aetiology of enuresis is not fully known. It may be a psychosomatic disorder caused by psychological & urological predispositions, combined with unfavourable environmental factors. 37 cases of both sexes (mean 8 yr-old), who had not improved after psychotherapy, were treated by AP. Statistical decrease of enuresis was evident during the 6-mo follow-up after AP treatment. AP offers a new possibility to treat cases with enuresis.

250#Sakai T; Kitakoji H; Nakamura T (1988) [AP therapy for non-bacterial prostatitis]. J Jpn Soc AP 38 (1):17. Four cases of non-bacterial prostatitis suffering from drug resistance received AP treatment. Points selected are KI12, SP06, BL23, & BL32 of both sides, & the sensitive points of pudendum. EAP, 3 Hz, was used for 10 min, & a bird-pecking technique was applied on the perineum. The treatment was given once/wk, & 10 times for each case. Pudendal uneasiness & tenderness over the prostate subsided, & no deterioration was observed.

251#Salim CM (1987) Epidural stimulation for lower abdominal operations. WFAS 1st Conf (UK):133-134. Based on the technique of continuous epidural analgesia, we introduced AP needles in the epidural space. Two AP needles were placed under local analgesia, one in the caudal space, & one in GV04. Electrode wires are connected to AP machine that is powered by 9 volt, delivers saw-wave pulses 0.5 ms in duration & 0.5 to 50 Hz in frequency with no net current component. During this period effectiveness of the EAP is evaluated frequently. The patients are asked to describe the pinprick sensation & their degree of pain. Once they are pain free, segmental level is determined by pin prick. Operation on feet, legs & perineum can be carried out. We have carried out different urological operations & have treated patients with intractable pains. 52 cases of TUR (Transurethral-Resection) for prostate were carried out with great success. Doses of analgesics were markedly reduced in intractable pain patients. Epidural space stimulation produces not only pain relief but also analgesic effect both in the stimulated segment & beyond.

252#Sato A, Sato Y, Suzuki A (1992) Mechanism of the reflex inhibition of micturition contractions of the urinary bladder elicited by AP-like stimulation in anaesthetised rats. Neurosci Res Nov; 15(3):189-198. Dept of Autonomic Nervous System, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Japan. The effects of AP-like stimulation of various segmental areas on the rhythmic micturition contractions (RMCs) of the urinary bladder were examined in anaesthetised rats. The urinary bladder was cannulated via the urethra & expanded by infusing saline until the urinary bladder produced micturition contractions rhythmically as a consequence of the rhythmic burst discharges of the vesical pelvic efferent nerves. An AP needle, having a diameter of either 160 or 340 microns, was inserted to a depth of about 4-5 mm into the skin & underlying muscles at various segmental areas, rostrally from the face then caudally to the hindlimb. Once being inserted, the needle was twisted left & right with the fingers about once every second for 1 min. (1) AP-like stimulation applied to the perineal area inhibited both the RMCs & the rhythmic burst discharges of vesical pelvic efferent nerves without any significant changes in the hypogastric efferent nerve activity. By contrast, stimulation applied to the face, neck, forelimb, chest, abdomen, back, & hindlimb areas was ineffective. (2) After surgically separating the perineal skin from the underlying muscles with the main cutaneous nerve branches intact, stimulation of either the perineal skin or the perineal muscles inhibited the RMCs. Stimulation of the perineal muscles produced a stronger inhibition of the RMCs than that of the perineal skin. (3) Stimulation of the perineal area increased afferent nerve activity, either recorded from the pudendal nerve branches innervating the perineal skin or underlying muscles, or recorded from the pelvic nerve branches innervating the perineal muscles. (4) The stimulation-induced inhibition of the RMCs was abolished after surgically severing both pudendal & pelvic nerve branches that innervated the perineal skin & underlying muscles. (5) The present findings indicate that the inhibition of the RMCs following AP-like stimulation of the perineal area is a reflex response characterised by segmental organisation. The afferent arcs of the reflex are both pelvic & pudendal nerve branches innervating the perineal skin & underlying muscles, while the efferent arcs are pelvic nerve branches innervating the urinary bladder.

253#Sato T (1984) [Therapy of male infertility]. Channel AP Ther (6):15-18. The paper presents the report of one case. A male, 30 yr old, suffered from infertility after being married for 2 yr. On examination, his wife showed no specific abnormality. Sperm test: number of sperms = 17 million, motion rate = 35%. According to the four diagnoses, his Channels were Differentiated as changes of KI (water), LU (metal), SP (earth), & LV (wood). The combined judgement was subjugation of KI & SP. AP was conducted 30 times, the number of sperms increased to 40 million, the motion rate was 70%. At the time of his 33rd AP, his wife was pregnant.

254#Schiantarelli C (1987) [Infertility]. Rev Fr Med Tradit Chin 1 (120):36-40. The definition of infertility & classification, diagnosis by TCM & treatment of male infertility were introduced. The causes, clinical manifestations & treatment by Differentiation of Syndromes of various kinds of male infertility such as defective ejaculation, oligospermia & weak sperm motility, aspermia & impotence, dream spermatorrhoea & premature ejaculation were discussed & a recipe of herbal decoction for each condition. A typical case was presented: patient with premature ejaculation, no children since marriage in 1976, received AP treatment since May 1984. His wife delivered a healthy male baby in March 1985.

255#Schnorrenberg CC (1984) [Medical objective evaluation of AP therapy]. Akupunkt Theorie Praxis 12 (1):23-32. This is a continuation of two papers in 1981 & 1983 & the curative effect of AP applied in orthopaedics, dermatology, Obs&Gyn & study on objective parameters are discussed. AP is applied to treat patients with arthralgia-syndrome, soft tissue injuries, & prevent infection of patients with open fracture & this proves the effective rate reaches 96%. Studies on diffusion area of skin diseases, effectiveness of AP, relation between skin diseases & internal organs give evidence to the existence of Channels. AP therapies are quite effective in treating neuroendocrine disorder. Effective rate of AP curing erosion of cervix, may reach 90%; correction of foetal malpresentation may reach 90% (higher within 30-34 wk than after 34 wk of pregnancy). Besides, AP is also used in induced abortion & preventing abortion.

256#Schuler W (1989) [AP in Obs&Gyn]. Akupunkt Theorie Praxis 17 (3):168-173. In the past 20 yr, Obs&Gyn have made a great advance in pace with the progress of modern medicine. For instance, the idea of integral therapy of AP has been emphasised, & the importance of the relation between doctors & patients has become understandable. This new comprehension also includes the integration with AP therapy. Thus, acupuncturist is at the same time gynaecologist & obstetrician. However, AP has its own characteristics in Obs&Gyn. According to experience of Leboyer (1981), gentle AP is suitable for use, i.e., needling should be minimal, generally not more than 6-8 times, & the insertion must be quick.

257#Schwager KL, Baines DB, Meyer RJ (1996) Acupuncture & postoperative vomiting in day-stay paediatric patients. Anaesth Intensive Care Dec; 24(6):674-7. Dept of Anaesthesia, New Children's Hospital, Sydney, NSW. Stimulation of PC06 has been used to prevent nausea & vomiting in adults. There are few data on its comparative evaluation in children. 84 unpremedicated paediatric patients having day-stay surgery circumcision or herniotomy/orchidopexy) were included in a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled study of transcutaneous stimulation of PC06 & LI04, or no stimulation. The incidence of vomiting was recorded for 24 h postoperatively. There was no statistically significant difference in total postoperative vomiting in those patients who were stimulated, compared with the control group (p=.909), or between any group for postoperative vomiting in the recovery ward, day-stay ward or at home. For all groups, vomiting was more common within the first four hours & more likely to occur in the day-stay ward.

258#Secor RM, Fertitta L (1992) Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. Nurse Pract Forum Sep; 3(3):161-168. Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome (VVS) is a condition characterised by dyspareunia, introital erythema, & tenderness. A subset of vulvodynia, VVS may be acute or chronic. If acute, a specific underlying cause is often identified, & when properly treated the condition is likely to fully resolve. In contrast, chronic VVS is less well understood & is often multifactorial. Treatment is aimed at providing symptomatic relief & should begin with the least invasive approaches such as the use of topical xylocaine, oral antiviral therapy, AP, & hypnotherapy. Interferon injections may be tried as last line medical therapy. Surgery has no role in treatment of acute VVS & is considered a last resort therapy for management of chronic VVS. Effort should be made to support the patient throughout the lengthy management process, encouraging patient participation, including negotiation of the treatment plan, & providing ongoing counselling & education.

259#Shatkina GV, Belitskaia RA, Malygina SI, Dunaev VI, Oberg OK, Buianova SN, Bragin EO (1991) [Corrective effect of reflexotherapy on the hypophyseal-ovarian & sympathetic-adrenal systems after ovariectomy - Article in Russian]. Akush Ginekol (Mosk) Oct; 10:58-61. The time course of LH, FSH, PRL, E2, hydrocortisone, insulin & catecholamine levels in the blood was followed up in 62 patients of a reproductive age after surgical switch-off of the ovaries. Reflex therapy (EAP, AP, other types of reflex therapy) included in the complex of postoperative treatment was conductive to the maintenance of a favourable level of hormones contributing to compensatory defence reactions to surgical stress & total ovariectomy.

260#She YC (1985) [Mechanism of ovulation induced by AP & Chinese herbal drugs]. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 5 (4):201. The experiment of ovulation stimulated by AP on healthy rabbit whose ovary is kept in the original position or the rabbit on which the anterioseptal ovary transplantation was performed. It identifies that AP can arouse ovulation, the mechanism of which is to arouse the appearance of LH peak through stimulating the endocrine-regulation system of hypothalamus & hypophysis, so as to cause ovulation. As far as the mechanism of inducing ovulation by Chinese herbs is concerned, it is mainly based on the drugs of tonifying the KI (e.g., Semen Cuscutae, Radix Morindae, Officinalis Herba Cistanchis) added with those of promoting blood circulation & subduing Xue Stasis (e.g., Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Flos Carthami, Semen Persicae) from the view of the clinical application of drugs. The experimental research also identifies this.

261#Shen QH; Liu BZ; Zhang CY (1988) [Treatment of vulvar dystrophy mainly with Electrothermic-AP]. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 8(1):27-28. Vulvar dystrophy used to be considered as a precancerous lesion, but now it is considered to be malignant only when atypical hyperplasia was accompanied. This disease has been much expounded in the literature of TCM, which holds that the disease was due to the Xu of both the LV & KI Yin, the Xue Xu-caused by Wind & Dryness pathogenic factor, & also due to the Xue failing to nourish the skin. Electrothermic-AP (ETA) could adjust the state of Qi & Xue, dredge the Channels & Collaterals, & promote the Xue circulation & relieve Stasis in clinical practice. It also could introduce the heat effect into the lesion directly. In our research, the new nomenclature & classification of ISSVD was used for diagnosis, & 156 cases were treated with ETA. Results in the three Types were: 1. 83% of the Xu of LV & KI Yin cases were cured, 17% improved. 2. Damp-Heat Type: 84% were cured & 16% improved. 3. The mixed Type: 73% were cured & 27% improved. The ETA could introduce the heat into the interior of the tissue directly, & make the heat-radiation from Interior to the Exterior, & from deep tissue to superficial tissue. The distribution of the heat is even & the temperature is adjustable, hence beneficial to the improvement of microcirculation, the dilatation of capillaries & the increase of blood flow. This also could relieve inflammation, reduce swelling, ease pain & itching & promote skin regeneration. It is a good therapy for vulvar dystrophy.

262#Shen XD (1987) [AP therapy: Report of 3 cases]. Xinjiang TCM (1):55, 10. 1. A 28-year old with mammary abscess was treated with AP at ST36, GB21, SI11, CV17 & SI01 by Xie Fa, with retention of needle for 1 h. She was cured after 3 sessions. 2. A 25-year old with hysterical aphasia was treated at LV02 & CV23, by Xie Fa. He was cured after 1 session. 3. A 43-yr old was treated for lumbar sprain at BL40, by point pricking blood therapy via a three-edged needle. He was cured after 1 session.

263#Sheng PL; Xie QW (1988) [Studies on the effect of EAP on prolactin secretion & the relative specificity of AP in rats]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu (AP Res) 13 (4):322-328. EAP of CV17 in three different models of non-lactating rats, normal male rats, dioestrous female rats & ovariectomised oestrogen supplemented (OVE) rats, gave marked increases of plasma PRL. EAP of different points (ST36, GB41, CV17) all elicited increases of plasma PRL. But the elevation of plasma PRL by EAP at CV17 was the most remarked as compared with ST36 & GB41. Also, EAP at GB41 antagonised the effect of EAP at CV17 point. Acupoints may have relative specificity. Also: Sheng PL, Xie QW (1989) Relationship between effect of AP on prolactin secretion & central catecholamine & GABA. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu (AP Res) 14 (4):446-451. Our lab had reported that AP at CV17 could stimulate pituitary PRL secretion in both lactating & non-lactating (male, female, ovariectomised oestrogen-supplemented) rats. Hu et al had discovered that AP could increase plasma PRL level in women of lactation deficiency. As was known, pituitary PRL secretion was under the control of PRL inhibitory factor (PIF) & PRL releasing factor (PRF) released from hypothalamic neurones as well as several central neurotransmitters. In the past decade, many studies in neuroendocrinology revealed that Tubero-infundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurones of hypothalamus play a major modulating role in PRL secretion. It is generally agreed that dopamine was the major PIF. The central noradrenaline (NE) is also a modulator. It was reported that NE could inhibit PRL secretion, but others obtained opposite result. The GABA has dual actions on PRL secretion: central action is stimulatory, but inhibitory on pituitary directly. Using agonist or antagonist of central neurotransmitter as well as its biosynthesis blocker etc., this paper mainly observed the possible role of catecholamine & GABA in PRL-elevating effect of AP. This will help further studying on & provide possible central mechanism for the effect of promoting milk yield & elevating PRL secretion by AP.

264#Sheng WX (1988) [Acute mastitis treated by AP combined with Chinese herbal drugs]. J Hubei Med Coll 9(2):182-184. 31 cases of acute mastitis were treated by AP in combination with TCM. The cure rate was 100% in a mean of 5.6 d. Main points: PC06 & CV17. The principle of TCM treatment was to disperse the depressed LV Qi & rectify it, dispel Heat & toxic materials, disperse Xue Stasis. The aetiology & therapeutics of the disease were discussed.

265#Shi HT (1986) [Personal experiences in using new method of 9 needles: Report of 2 cases]. Shanxi TCM 2 (2):37-38. One case was 72 yr old, suffering from prostatomegaly. He came for the treatment because of the simple prostatomegaly accompanied by urinary retention for 1 d. AP was used at BL54 bilaterally, with the needles retained for 20 min. During the retention of needle, the patient was able to discharge his urine by himself. Then a spear-pointed & hooked needle was used to cut points GV04, X_29-Yaoqi & BL31-34. After the treatment was repeated 5 times, the patient restored a free discharge of his urine. Another case was at the age of 62, suffering from epistaxis. He visited my clinic because his nasal bleeding could not be stopped. Points SP01 bilateral, BL67 bilateral, LU11, LI01, TH01, bilateral & GV23 were selected, using AP needles for moderate stimulation. Needles were retained for 20 min. Next day, his nasal bleeding was stopped.

266#Shi JR; Wu BZ (1986) [Enuresis treated by pressure on Earpoints: Report of 15 cases]. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 6(11):695-696. 15 cases, 4-15 yr-old, with 3-15 yr history of enuresis, were treated by pressure on Vaccaria Seeds taped at Earpoints Brain, BL, KI, Support & Shenmen + Helper points: LU, SP, & TH. Plasters were alternately applied at the ears & changed every 2 d, 5 times/course, for 1-3 courses, as needed. Enuresis disappeared on d 1 of treatment in most of the 15 cases.

267#Shi PF (1986) [Effects of AP at different points on the function of the bladder]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust (3):14, 16. All cases of this group had traumatic incomplete paraplegia with dysuria & residual urine. Two different groups of points were compared: (A) Local points bilateral BL28, BL32 + unilateral CV03 were chosen; (B) Distant points bilateral SP06, SP09 + KI10 were chosen. AP of CV03 may induce Deqi to spread to the perineum. BL32 was needled 3" deep; other points were needled 1-1.2" deep, with mild Bu Fa-Xie Fa until Deqi. The needles were retained for 30 min & twisted for 1 min before removal. Residual urine was monitored with A-mode ultrasonography before & after AP. Significant difference between before & after AP was found in A group (p<.001), but not in group B (p>.05). The effect of local points CV03, BL32 & BL28 for the contractile function of BL are more obvious than that of the distant points.

268#Shi PY (1995) TCM expert system in postpartum nursing. Medinfo 8 Pt 2:1032. Shanghai Nanshi Maternity & Infant Health Hospital, Ren Ming Road 841, Shanghai 200010 PRC. TCM is highly appreciated by Chinese, because it is safe, without side effects, widely applicable, gives good results, & uses natural medicinal herbs. It is an ideal natural cure that will make contributions to the health of patients all over the world. The superiority of TCM nursing & treatment should be brought into full play: it is an active nursing method which deserves recommendation for postpartum nursing. This paper introduces the TCM expert system in postpartum nursing & discusses the features of TCM treatment & nursing by using concepts of modern cybernetics. The human body can be considered a high-level automatic control system in which there are many transinformation media, for example, the nervous system, humoral system, Channel system (the response along the channels during AP) etc. They stem from the very long process of evolution. Through the action of them, the body can adapt environments; keep normal metabolism & immunity; & possess the functions of compensation, learning, & self-repair, for example, conditioned reflexes, vaccination, etc. In general, the balancing tendency of the normal dynamic body stays in homeostasis. If the body is ill, then its dynamic balancing tendency will be changed. TCM doctors can make use of remedy, AP, & massage, etc. to regulate the balancing tendency of dynamic body to induce the defending ability itself & recover normal homeostasis. The TCM nursing expert system in postpartum nursing has been finished. Its working environment must be CCDOS or UCDOS edition 3.0 & above. The hardware environment is PC/286, 386, or 486.

269#Shi YH; Jin H (1988) [AP therapy & Qi reaching affected area]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 7(3):13-14. In this paper, 3 cases treated effectively with AP with Qi reaching to the affected area were reported. They were: 1. globus hystericus, 2. diarrhoea, 3. enuresis. The problem of how to get Deqi to reach the affected area was discussed.

270#Shirota F (1988) [AP & moxibustion treatment of arthritis deformans]. J Tradit Sin Jpn Med 9(1):43-45. The concept of genopathy deformans (deforming knee pathology) cannot be found in traditional AP medicine, however, similar conditions were recorded in the literature such as knee pain, foot & knee pain, & arthalgia. The main pathology of the disease is mainly cartilage degeneration of the knee joint with corresponding exostosis. Initial manifestations includes fatigue around the knee & mild pain, which is characterised by pain on walking, reduced after a distance, & exaggerated after a continuous long distance of walking. Joint movement becomes limited if the disease progresses, with swelling of the joint & atrophy of the quadriceps femoris muscle. AP treatment may relieve pain & muscle spasm with improvement of blood circulation. Ashi points are selected, or sites with nodules. In case of joint swelling the effect of moxibustion is better than that of AP. Points above the knee joint are selected for atrophy of the quadriceps muscle & those around the inguinal canal for increment of blood flow of the lower extremity.

271#Siterman S, Eltes F, Wolfson V, Zabludovsky N, Bartoov B (1997) Effect of AP on sperm parameters of males suffering from subfertility related to low sperm quality. Arch Androl Sep; 39 (2):155-161. Inst of Chinese Medicine, Tel Aviv, Israel. The aim of this prospective controlled study was to assess the effect of AP on the sperm quality of males suffering from subfertility related to sperm impairment. Semen samples of 16 AP-treated subfertile patients were analysed before & 1 mo after treatment (twice/wk for 5 wk). Semen samples of 16 control subfertile males were taken at an interval of 2-8 mo. The expanded semen analysis included routine & ultramorphological observations. The fertility index increased significantly (p</=.05) after improvement in total functional sperm fraction, % viability, total motile sperms per ejaculate, & integrity of the axonema (p</=.05), which occurred upon treatment. The integrity of axonema & sperm motility correlated highly (r=.50, p</=.05). Thus, AP treatment may help patients with low fertility potential due to reduced sperm activity. Controlled clinical trial.

272#Song LF (1993) [Current situation of the clinical application of Finger-Pressure therapy]. J Gansu Coll TCM 10 (1):48-49. Topics reviewed were: 1) Dept of Internal Medicine: Syncope, headache, insomnia, hysterical aphasia, hiccup, hypertension, angina pectoris, abdominal pain, leucopenia. 2) Dept of Surgery: Stiff neck, acute mastitis, acute lumbar sprain, 3) Dept of Obstetrics & Paediatrics: Dysmenorrhoea, infantile cry due to frightening, infantile nocturnal crying, mycotic stomatitis, infantile diarrhoea, enuresis. 4) Dept of Eye, Ear, Nose, & Throat: Epistaxis, allergic rhinitis, toothache, dysfunction of temporomandibular joint.

273#Souza FJV (1987) A preliminary observation of the physiological effects after abdominal ligation of oviduct: 28 cases treated by AP. WFAS 1st Conf (UK):97-98. To study the underlying mechanism of unknown & very common symptoms that frequently appear in women after abdominal oviductal ligation, the author studied 96 patients, 41 of which had the surgery done; the other 51 being a control group. 65% of the 41 patients presented the following symptoms 4-5 yr after the surgery: Main symptoms: menorrhagia, decrease of libido, fatigue, tachycardia, pain in the lower limbs, lumbar pain. Secondary symptoms: ovary cysts & myomas. The control group presented less than 8% of these signs. Points to relieve the symptoms: CV01, CV04, CV06, GV04, LV01, LV03, KI03, KI04, SP01, SP06, SP09, LU07, BL23, BL25. Consider moxa at KI03, LU07 & CV04. Neon-Laser was used for 1-2 min/point. AP was effective in 85% of 28 cases. All symptoms disappeared spontaneously after menopause.

274#Steiner RP (1983) AP: cultural perspectives: 1: The Western view. Postgrad Med Oct; 74 (4):60-67. While AP has been popularised in the lay press for the past decade, issues of Oriental mystique & difficulties in understanding a foreign medical system have often clouded its therapeutic efficacy. Numerous studies have explored the mechanism by which AP works. The effects of AP constitute a generalised systemic reaction with far-reaching consequences. AP has numerous clinical applications in obstetrics & dentistry, as well as use in the treatment of asthma, musculoskeletal disorders, various addictions, angina pectoris, peptic ulcer disease, functional bowel disorders, & acute bacillary dysentery.

275#Stellpflug H, Wickings EJ, Nieschlag E (1978) [Operative stress during EAP & enflurane anaesthesia assessed by serum cortisol - Article in German]. Prakt Anaesth Dec; 13 (6):483-488. Before, during & after gynaecological operations performed either in EAP or enflurane anaesthesia plasma-cortisol levels were determined & compared to each other. During stimulation & operation plasma-cortisol increased continuously, indicating elevated sympathetic tone, whereas with enflurane anaesthesia plasma-cortisol levels were markedly lower. Postoperatively after EAP cortisol levels decreased, & rose again with the onset of pain. After enflurane anaesthesia cortisol levels increased continuously for a period of more than 90 min. Because of the strong correlation between degree of stress & plasma-cortisol level, the data show that surgery under EAPA caused greater stress than that during enflurane anaesthesia. The changes in cortisol levels were observed during stabilised cardiovascular conditions. Conditions varying plasma-cortisol levels too, are discussed.

276#Stener-Victorin E, Waldenstrom U, Andersson SA, Wikland M (1996) Reduction of blood flow impedance in the uterine arteries of infertile women with EAP. Hum Reprod Jun; 11 (6):1314-1317. Dept of Obs&Gyn, Fertility Centre Scandinavia, Univ of Gothenburg, S-413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden. In order to assess whether EAP can reduce a high uterine artery blood flow impedance, 10 infertile but otherwise healthy women with a pulsatility index (PI) >=3.0 in the uterine arteries were treated with EAP in a prospective, non-randomised study. Before inclusion in the study & throughout the entire study period, the women were down regulated with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) in order to exclude any fluctuating endogenous hormone effects on the PI. The baseline PI was measured when the serum E2 was <=0.1 nmol/l, & thereafter the women were given EAP eight times, twice/wk for 4 wk. The PI was measured again closely after the eighth EAP treatment, & once more 10-14 d after the EAP period. Skin temperature on the forehead (STFH) & in the lumbosacral area (STLS) was measured during the first, fifth & eighth EAP treatments. Compared to the mean baseline PI, the mean PI was significantly reduced both shortly after the eighth EAP treatment (p<.0001) & 10-14 d after the EAP period (p<.0001). STFH increased significantly during the EAP treatments. Both of these effects may be due to central inhibition of the sympathetic activity.

277#Stone A2 (1996) Chinese Medicine's Treatments for Women: Menopause, Pre-menstrual Syndrome, Dysmenorrhoea, Menorrhagia or Metrorrhagia. Adapted from WWW ( TCM has been treating women for millennia. If you've been suffering for years, you owe it to yourself to research your alternatives. You have options; suffering need not be one of them. / TCM (AP, Herbal Med & other therapies) is rapidly growing in acceptance in the West simply because it works. It's strongest feature is probably its ability to treat chronic Syndromes for which conventional Med has no answers, no treatments & no relief other than harsh chemicals with potentially unpleasant side effects. TCM treats women's health very differently from conventional WM. This article describes some typical problems that woman have treated with TCM. / TCM is based on the law of Yin-Yang. This law teaches that health only comes from a balance between these 2 fundamental principles. In the same way as American culture is struggling to find equality between the sexes, for millennia, Chinese culture has understood that health depends on having a balance & harmony of the masculine (Yang) & feminine (Yin) principles within ourselves. Applying the law of Yin-Yang socially is the basis for men's & women's groups in our culture. TCM seeks to insure health through this same concept as applied to one's bodily functions. / Menopause: TCM approaches Menopause as many Syndromes. All the Syndromes have been treated successfully by AP & Herbal Med. The most typical cause of symptoms associated with menopause is the slowing of the flow of Yin. When applied to the body, this is the TCM concept of the hydration or the cooling system within the body. Typical symptoms of this Yin-Xu include hot flashes, night sweats, mood swings, insomnia & HT palpitations. Sometimes, instead of a weak Yin (Yin-Xu), Yang becomes weak (Yang-Xu). Yang represents the warming function of the cells, their metabolism & other active processes. In Yang-Xu, symptoms include: water retention, oedema, weight gain, indigestion, hypertension, & a raised cholesterol level. Left untreated, Yin-Xu or Yang-Xu can lead to Qi-Xu. Qi is the TCM term for vital internal energies. Symptoms of a Qi-Xu can include: feeling "run-down, " fatigue, decreased sex drive, dry vagina, cold extremities, lower back pain, weak knees & incontinence. In China, maturity & the wisdom of age are revered highly; perhaps that is why they call the time after menopause to be a women's "second spring." This reverence for the elders has led to the evolution of TCM Herbal Med to its current beneficial status. Menopause can be made much smoother through TCM herbal therapy. / Prognosis: Very good. Although the symptoms associated with "the change" are obviously transitory, TCM has helped women for millennia to enjoy their second spring without any the growing pains of the first. Many women, after menopause, because of the slowing of the flow of "Yin, " discover their Yang principle & go on to achieve, for the first time in their lives, success in business & other areas which have been traditionally dominated by men & their prominent "Yang" principle. In the same way, men, after the age of 50 or so, often find the time to discover their "Yin" or feminine principle & develop a more refined sense of compassion & nurturing in life. / Pre-menstrual Syndrome: Emotional and/or physical discomfort occurring before or after the period. In TCM, mainly LV & SP regulate menstruation. In TCM, LV & SP are very different from the organs described in WM. LV starts the menstrual cycle & SP follows through. In disharmony in LV, symptoms include the emotional swings often associated with PMS, such as: depression, sadness, irritability, crying & outbursts of anger. When the problem comes from SP, a woman will likely experience clumsiness, distension of the abdomen & breasts, & insomnia. In TCM, emotional strain, overwork, too much sexual activity, & dietary problems are regarded as the causes of PMS. Diet from the Chinese perspective doesn't talk about a lack of nutrients, but rather, excessive amounts of foods that aggravate the body's systems. Foods that are the most likely to lead to PMS include an excessive intake of dairy products & greasy or fried foods. / Prognosis: Both AP & herbs give excellent results for PMS. As with all menstrual problems, it will take a minimum of 3 menstrual periods to regulate the cycle completely, although some improvement can often be seen even after 1 mo. / Dysmenorrhoea: Pain occurring before, during or after menstruation. This pain often occurs in the lower abdomen or lower back. Related conditions in WM include; endometriosis, uterine fibroids, myoma & mittelschmerz (middle-pain). In TCM, these arise either from Xue-Xu (like anaemia in WM, though it has other meanings as well), or from Qi-Xue-Stasis. Qi- or Xue- Stasis can both effect & be effected by emotion. Stasis makes one emotional, & emotions cause Stasis. TCM seeks to release the Qi-Xue-Stasis, Nourish & increase the amount of Xue in circulation, remove the pain & ease the emotions. Left untreated, Qi-Stasis leads to Xue-Stasis. This causes intermittent sharp pains in the abdomen, or what the West calls mittelschmerz. If the Xue-Stasis is allowed to slow the circulation of Qi or Xue for a long time, a soft nodule can appear in the area. This is one way of describing endometriosis. Again, should the soft nodule go untreated & the Stasis in the body remain, in time it can become a harder nodule like a uterine fibroid. Should that nodule begin to grow more rapidly, it can become what the West calls myoma, or cancer. In TCM, pain tends to come from Qi- or Xue- Stasis. At that stage it is a simple matter to get that Qi or Xue moving again to remove the monthly pain. However, left untreated, complications can appear. It isn't the intent of this article to frighten anyone with the discomfort associated with menstruation, but it is a reminder that pain is nature's way of reminding us to be aware of our body's needs. Often, pain is simply a first alert to a problem that can be solved as by something as simple as expressing your emotions or feeling better understood. / Menorrhagia or Metrorrhagia: Excessive menstrual flow or spotting. In TCM, the reasons for these Syndromes are many. They include Qi-Stasis due to emotional strain, & Qi-Xu due to many situations including overwork, too much sexual activity, chronic illness, or childbirth. Another cause could be Xue-Heat, which would probably be associated with restlessness, fever & constipation. One could even spot-bleed after the period because of SP-Xu (SP weakness). Symptoms associated with SP-Xu might include a poor appetite, shortness of breath & a pale complexion. In cases of excessive post-menstrual flow or spotting, treatment could range from wearing "shields" (where spotting falls within normal limits) to an aggressive treatment plan to rebalance all of the various organ systems involved with this Syndrome.

278#Stone Ab1 (1996) "High winds don't last all morning": a look at PMS from the Oriental Med perspective: Part 1. Adapted from WWW ( / For millennia, TCM has been treating the symptoms of pre-menstrual Syndrome. In the modern world, many women have found, especially in the area of gynaecology, that conventional modern WM offers few answers, little relief & no treatments other than harsh chemicals with potentially unpleasant side effects. / PMS is a reasonably simple Syndrome to treat with TCM. However, left untreated, this little problem can become a big one. In TCM, PMS is a precursor to lumps, cysts, lesions, & cancerous tumours in the breasts & uterus. / AP & herbs can provide enormous relief for the symptoms of PMS, however the underlying cause of PMS is often times due to one's lifestyle & the way in which one relates with the world. Methods such as meditation, relaxation techniques & exercises that require mental focus, are better to treat the root causes of PMS. / Symptoms of PMS / In TCM, LV & SP are the two main organs that control (regulate) menstruation. In TCM, LV & SP are very different from the two organs described in WM. That is why they are capitalised in this article, because we're talking about LV & SP from the viewpoint of TCM. / LV starts the menstrual cycle & SP controls the creation of Xue in the body. In LV disharmony, symptoms include the mood swings that we often associate with PMS which include periods of depression, sadness, irritability, crying, & anger. When the problem arises from SP, a woman will likely experience symptoms such as a foggy sense of clumsiness, dull pain of the abdomen and/or breasts, or insomnia. / Other symptoms possible with PMS include cravings (especially for sweets), water retention, fatigue, diarrhoea, and/or constipation, frequent colds (during pre-menstrual period) abdominal bloating, breast tenderness with possible lumps, migraines, sore throat, nausea, & dysmenorrhoea (any problem with the menstrual flow from scanty amounts to excessive flow). / PMS occurs when LV function fails to work right. In TCM, all of the body's functions are regulated & energised by Qi. It could translate to anything from bioelectric energy to cellular metabolism. For our purposes, calling it simply Qi (energy) is probably best. / In TCM, one of the functions of LV in the body, is to maintain the free flow of Qi. When this happens, we feel flexible, flowing & graceful within our bodies as well as within life. In a LV problem, its function of circulating Qi is compromised; PMS is one result of LV-Qi-Stasis. / Where PMS comes from: In TCM, LV is associated with the Wood Phase. Wood likes to grow, but when hampered, LV "becomes angry". Our culture is heavily influenced by the desire to move forward, to achieve something, to be someone. When something stands in one's way, one feels like a tree that cannot grow; thus, LV reacts. / TCM is based on Taoism, (pronounced DOW-ism) a Chinese philosophy that dates back 8, 000 yr. This philosophy says that health comes from a balance between the masculine & feminine principles within everything. For example, the LV-Yang is very aggressively moving forward, but this must be balanced with LV-Yin, which represents the ability to move backwards, to be flexible, & to respond to conditions in new & spontaneous ways. / The Wood-Qi of LV is like a sapling that wants to grow. When a shoot begins to grow out of a seed it may hit a rock & not be able to grow upwards anymore. It doesn't get angry or frustrated, but it seeks to find a way around the rock so it can continue its upward climb to the light of the above ground world. This is the perfect blend of LV-Yin & LV-Yang. / When we encounter barriers to what we want, obstacles to our future, or any shortcoming to our expectations in life, LV reacts. We become angry & the Qi ceases to flow smoothly & freely. / PMS is what a woman feels when the free flow of Qi is compromised. Disharmonies of LV will have 2 effects on the menstrual cycle. One is the compromised free flow of Qi that causes moodiness & unexpectedly intense emotions. The other problem that comes from LV disharmony is what happens after we become angry. It is said that anger makes the Qi rise to the head. That's why our eyes get red, we get headaches, dizziness, & even nosebleeds when we're very angry. The problem with this is that for the menstrual flow to begin & move easily the Qi must be descending. Without the free descending flow of Qi at the onset of the menses, there is pain. / Many other symptoms may occur in PMS along with moodiness & pain. Sometimes, LV gets so angry that it "attacks" SP. This causes SP functions to be compromised. Symptoms associated with this portion of PMS include: cravings (especially for sweets), water retention, fatigue, frequent colds (during PMS period) abdominal bloating, breast tenderness with possible lumps, & of course, dysmenorrhoea, especially toward the end of the period. / On a mental or emotional level, a LV (Wood) "attack" (Overacting) on SP (Earth) manifests as obsession. SP controls the digestive system, but it also controls the digestion of our life-experiences. SP-Qi "digests" (mulls over, processes the implications) our old relationships, traumas, or losses in our lives. So, when LV "attacks" SP, not only do we feel angry, but also we can't get it out of our heads. We obsessively think about the object of our desire all the time. Nothing is ever fully processed, or digested in our minds. With all this SP-Qi being used in the mental realm, the physical digestive system suffers, leading to further aggravation of the symptoms mentioned earlier. / Complications of PMS / When LV is angry, Qi stops flowing smoothly. Qi-Stasis is like a freeway tie-up due to another car's breakdown on the freeway's shoulder. There isn't anything in the middle of the freeway to back things up, but the flow of cars slows down. PMS is essentially Qi-Stasis. It is relatively easy to treat this. However, Qi-Stasis can lead to other things much worse. The slowed traffic can lead to a little fender-bender if the drivers aren't watching carefully & this will back things up even further. Given time, there can be a larger accident involving a gasoline tanker or worse. In the same way, Qi-Stasis can lead to Xue Stasis, which can lead to lumps, cysts, lesions, & even cancerous tumours in the breasts & uterus. / Treatments for PMS / AP will gently break free the Stasis of the Qi in the body. This has the effect of easing the emotions & softening the pain associated with menstruation. As with all menstrual problems, it may take a few menstrual periods to regulate the cycle completely, although some improvement can often be seen even after 1 mo. / A TCM herbal formula (Xiao Yao Wan, or Hsiao Yao Wan, pronounced "shao yao wan") is often used for PMS. This is ironic, since it translates to "Free & Easy Pill." Individual herbs, such as Dang Gui, are effective for women, but this herb is rarely used alone

279#Stone Ab2 (1996) "High winds don't last all morning": a look at PMS from the Oriental Med perspective: Part 2. TCM herbal formulas are created with balance & harmony in mind. Xiao Yao Wan has Dang Gui as well as other ingredients to Clear Qi-Stasis, nourish the Xue, strengthen SP, & relieve pain. They all support each other to increase their various functions. Xiao Yao Wan is widely available at stores that carry Chinese herbs. / Exercise can help too. Aerobic exercise helps to: / 1. Vent off nervous energy; / 2. Stimulate LU functions, which help to control LV. In the same way that LV can lower SP-Qi, so it is that LU can sedate LV. / Taiqi or Qigong (breathing exercises to amplify & invigorate Qi) helps at the root of the problem. Even meditation will have this same effect. Pulling the consciousness into "The Now" makes LV less attached to preplanned goals. With this added flexibility, we can become more able to accept obstacles in life that allow us to find more appropriate solutions than emotional reactions. Taiqi, Qigong & Meditations have many benefits to health well beyond the control of PMS; the latter is but one manifestation of the many problems that result from the many possible disharmonies of LV. / Changes in lifestyle can be incorporated into one's life to help control PMS at its root: Taoism says that one live in accordance with nature. Many say that this includes a vegetarian diet, living off the land, going to bed with the stars, & getting up with the sun, but in the middle of the city in the 20th century, this is very difficult. Instead, it would be wise to become sensitive to the nature within. If one is doing something which makes one feel uncomfortable, one can stop doing it. If one wants to be a mother instead of an advertising executive, one can make the change & watch one's health improve. If one must work to survive, one can find a job that allows for more expression of one's creative or nurturing side. This sort of change in one's life is not easy, nor is it something that can be adequately addressed in an article about PMS, but it is amazing how health issues clear up when the internal issues are resolved. / From the Buddhist standpoint, the calming of LV might include seeing things as they are, without any additional meaning. Things that make us mad do so because we attach to them a great deal of significance that may or may not even be valid. Buddhism teaches detachment. With detachment comes the ability to see things as they are, not as one would like them to be, or as one fears they might become. TCM says that LV is attached to the eyes. Seeing life clearly with complete acceptance & a lack of interpretation provides LV with the freedom to attack life or retreat from it as is appropriate to the moment. With this balance, the free flow of Qi is restored, anger & frustration are calmed. / Islam, Christianity & Judaism all have methods to calm the LV as well. In surrendering one's will to Allah, in living one's life only to love God, or in offering up one's sins to Jesus, one is freed from the past & one is also freed from the future. An unhealthy obsession with goals in life increases the likelihood of LV reacting with anger or LV-Qi-Stasis when something stands in our way. Having a direction in life is good; having neither flexibility nor acceptance of the midcourse corrections that God makes in one's life is another way to describe the root cause of LV-Qi-Stasis. / The 20th century brings with it levels of stress & pain that have never been encountered in the past. However, because of the unique multicultural interactions available within US society, we can also benefit from ancient treatments such as TCM for these contemporary disorders. Today, we have options; when it comes to PMS, suffering need not be one of them.

280#Suetsuna H (1988) [Channel therapy in diseases of children]. Channel AP Ther 20(5):7-19. Channel therapies were introduced for ascariasis, pulmonary artery stenosis, weakness caused by dyspepsia, incomplete dislocation of elbow joint, paresis due to birth injury, infantile asthma, mental & motor retardation, nocturnal enuresis & common cold.

281#Sumita K; Kogure K; Sasaki T (1988) [AP therapy of depression (2): Theory & therapy of depression in traditional Oriental medicine]. J Jpn AP Moxibust 47(6):6-13. After healing of herpes zoster, severe neuralgia usually remains, hardly to be cured. A herpes zoster case, male, 52 yr-old, was treated with AP with satisfactory result. The patient had suffered from crops of vesicles around the right anterior superior iliac spine for 2 wk, later extended to the right inguinal region. 5-6 d later he had severe pain from the right flank to the inguinal region & did not respond well to analgesics. He sought AP therapy. He was then diagnosed as post-herpetic neuralgia; treatment was aimed mainly at analgesia. With the patient in the left lateral position, AP to 3 cm deep was used at Ashi points such as BL25, BL26 & Shangtun. Moxibustion was applied at BL23 & BL25. After 4 sessions, pain was markedly relieved; only mild discomfort remained at the affected site & he could resume work. Early treatment was essential.

282#Sun JS (1986) [AP treatment of impotence - 1 case]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust (3):8. A male patient of 38 yr-old suffered from impotence for >10 yr in spite of many therapies. AP was used at BL23, GV04, bilateral KI07 & CV04 with Bu Fa. After Deqi, twist & twirl. CV04 was needled obliquely with a 28 gauge 5" needle at an angle of 45 degrees for 2-4" until Deqi was transmitted to the glans penis, twist, twirl, lift & thrust for 5 min. Combine with AP + EAP at Earpoints KI, LV & bilateral HT points with Bu Fa. Retain the needle for 30 min. Treat every 2 d, 12 times/course. After 1 course, the symptom of premature ejaculation was improved. After course 2, the patient was basically normal. Another course was taken to consolidate the effect, then the therapy was given once/wk for 3 mo. The effect is stable.

283#Sun YL (1996) Clinical Observation on 48 Cases with Dysmenorrhoea Treated by Nerve Stimulation Therapy. The Dept of Obs&Gyn, Red Cross Hospital of Shenzhen, 518000 PRC. Adapted from WWW. 48 cases with dysmenorrhoea were treated by nerve stimulation therapy. Of these 32 cases (67%) were clinically cured, 3 (17%) well improved, 5 (9%) improved, the total effective rate was 94%.

284#Sun ZF; Cao RJ; Bian XP (1987) [Herniorrhaphy under EAP anaesthesia: a clinical investigation]. AP Res 12(2):94-98. 118 cases receiving herniorrhaphy under EAPA were divided into two groups with same main points & different Helper points. Success rate in the two groups was 94 & 84% respectively. Effects of herniorrhaphy under EAPA on the BP & pulse rate of the patients were studied. EAPA can be used routinely in herniorrhaphy of indirect inguinal hernia, direct hernia, communicating hydrops of funicular tunica vaginalis & femoral hernia, etc. It is especially applicable in femoral hernia. BP was stable in most cases with hypertension during operation under EAPA.

285#Takazawa K (1987) [Introducing AP to a clinic of Obs&Gyn]. Jpn J Ryodoraku Auton New Syst 30 (2):50-51. Good effect & safety were obtained with application of AP, including intradermal AP, Ryodoraku therapy, Ear-AP & low cycle wave AP in clinics of Obs&Gyn. AP might be applied alone or combined with drugs. It was effective in treatment of climacteric Syndrome, especially in patients complicated with hyperhidrosis & was also efficacious for hyperhidrosis in postoperative cervix or breast cancer patient. As in treatment of menstrual disorder especially for those obese patients good effect might be obtained with additional diet-control. It might be used in relieving symptoms of vomiting, back pain & headache during pregnancy. Combined with antibiotics, it was helpful in symptom eliminating & promoting the cure of endometritis & adnexitis. As in curettage or operation of artificial abortion or childbirth, AP showed the analgesic effect, it might shorten the time for delivery, cause the postoperative haemostasis & involution of uterus.

286#Tan DF (1989) [Clinical uses of pricking blood therapy in surgery & traumatology in past 30 years]. Jiangsu JTCM 10(3):124-127. In recent 30 years, the pricking blood therapy has been applied to following diseases: 1. The infective surgical diseases. 2. Mastopathy (mastadenitis, mastocarcinoma); 3. Rectal & anal diseases (haemorrhoid, anal fissure & fistula, prolapse of the anus); 4. Cholangiopathy (cholecystitis, choleliths) 5. Peripheral vascular diseases (thromboembolic angiitis, varicosity of lower extremities); 6. Tuberculosis of bone & joints; 7. Damages of soft tissues (stiff neck, vertebral diseases, & lumbar sprain); 8. Others (joint-swelling) etc.

287#Tan SC (1985) [Acupoint injection therapy: Report of 2 refractory cases]. J New Chin Med (2):26-27. Case 1, 43 yr-old woman with hiccup: Solution of Radix Angelicae Sinensis was injected into point CV06, CV12 respectively at 1 ml/point. 2 ml of placenta tissue solution was injected into ST36. After 1 course of treatment, her hiccup ceased totally. Case 2, 48 yr-old woman with enuresis: Main points: CV04 & BL23 were injected slowly with placenta tissue solution at 2 ml/point. ST36 was used as Helper giving injection of solution Radix Angelicae Sinensis. Enuresis was cured after 24 injections.

288#Tang HS (1993) [Observations on 58 cases of acute mastitis treated by Channel apparatus]. Chin AP Moxibust 13(5):243-244. 58 patients who had been suffering from acute mastitis for 1-28 d were treated by EAP. Jianjing (GB21) & Ashi on the affected side were stimulated with the intensity inducing numb & vibrating sensations in local areas. The therapeutic effects were marked when the numb sensation spread to the whole breast. Treatment was for 30 min, once/d, or twice in severe case. Of 58 cases, 98% were cured, & 2% effective in a mean of 1.5 sessions.

289#Tang LM; Zhang ZB; Jiao Y (1994) [Effect of AP on serum sexual hormones in male CHD patients]. Acta Med Sin 9 (1):57-58, 61. There were 30 cases in each of three groups: 1) AP group; 2) Diseased control group; 3) Healthy control group. Isosorbide dinitrate, enteric coating aspirin, nifepine were administered to the first two groups daily & routinely. Group 1 was needled once/d. Main points: PC06, ST36, BL15, BL43. In accordance with symptoms, select SP06, CV17, BL14, BL19, GV20. At the same time, Earpoints were taped & pressed with Dried Vaccaria Seeds (Adrenal, Endocrine, HT, Subcortex, Sympathetic Nerve, SI). Serum T level of patients suffering from CHD was significantly lower than that of healthy control; & their E2 level & the ratio of E2/T were significantly higher than those of healthy control. AP significantly raised the level of T, & significantly reduced that of E2 & the ratio of E2/T. In Group 2, no significant differences of various indices occurred after drug administration. Groups 1 & 2, had significant differences (p<.01, or .05) in levels of T, E2, & the ratio of E2/T. AP may influence the synthesis & release of E2 & T.

290#Tang YS (1993) [Hysterical paralysis treated by AP at KI01]. Zhejiang JTCM 28(11):520. Patients were asked to lie supine (face-up) with both legs stretched. 1.5" needles, 28 gauge, were used to puncture KI01 straight. After swift insertion to 1" deep & getting Deqi to spread toward the thigh & even to the inguinal region & the lower abdomen, the needle was manipulated with strong method & uniform Bu Fa-Xie Fa for 2-3 min, & retained for 15 min; it was manipulated once again every 5 min. For unilateral paralysis the ipsilateral point was used; for paraplegia, bilateral points were used. At the same time, the patient was asked to bend or raise his affected leg repeatedly. Immediately after AP, he was helped to walk around. Treatment was 1-3 times/d. All 12 cases were cured.

291#Tanzawa S; Ryo E; Hayashi Y (1985) [Survey for scientification on AP medicine & clinical application of AP therapy to rehabilitation medicine]. J Jpn Soc AP 35 (3-4):173-181. Endocrine effects were examined to analyse a mode of action of AP therapy. By activating the HPOA, AP stimulation increased the synthesis of adrenocortical & ovarian steroids. From an aspect of changes in glucose metabolism of the liver & urine catecholamines, AP helped to maintain homeostasis. Also, the sensory area EEG potential evoked by the stimulation of AP was recorded to clarify the relationship with effects of the therapy. SEPs were useful to evaluate the preliminary clinical effects. AP was confirmed to be a useful complementary therapy in rehabilitation medicine, when an appropriate case is chosen carefully.

292#Tao ZX (1985) [Oligospermia treated by AP & moxibustion: Report of 12 cases]. Zhejiang JTCM 20 (11, 12):495. AP was used at CV04, CV03, KI03, KI06 with even manipulation. The needles were retained after Deqi, & warming-needle technique was used for 2-3 moxa cones. After needling, CV01 was treated with moxa-stick & massage alternately for about 30 min. Treatments were given once/2 d, & after 20-d treatments, a 6-d rest was needed. During treatments, no other medications were taken. The sperm count & activity of all the cases increased in the varying degrees. & their wives were pregnant or bore babies.

293#Tereshin AT, Levshin BI (1992) Pathogenetic reflex therapy in multiple-modality treatment of disorders in the reproductive & sexual functions in patients with chronic nonspecific salpingo-oophoritis. Vestn Dermatol Venerol (7):71-75. Clinico-sexologic examinations & reflex therapy (AP) were carried out in 64 cases with chronic nonspecific salpingo-oophoritis (CNSO) suffering from infertility & sexologic disorders. Besides disordered cycle, these cases presented with neuropsychic, metabolic endocrine, & vegetative disturbances: they complained of headaches, irritability, anxiety, lowered working abilities, trophic abnormalities. Psychotherapeutic correction of sexual disharmony, aimed at extension of the 'admissibility range', development of erotic & orgasmic sensitivity, was carried out in all the cases. AP was conducive to elimination of vegetoneurotic & metabolic disorders, as well to recovery of the reproductive function in 61 % of women & of sexual function in 91 % of the 64 women, suffering from infertility & sexologic disorders in the presence of CNSO.

294#Tiktinskii OL, Pupkova LS, Kachan AT, Mikhailichenko VV, Korovin KF (1986) [Reflexotherapy of the secretory form of male infertility - Article in Russian]. Urol Nefrol (Mosk) May-Jun; (3):55-9.

295#Titova NG; Khashukoeva AZ; Korneev BM (1991) AP therapy in the comprehensive treatment of salpingo-oophoritis. Akusherstvo i Ginekologiia Jun (6):44-47. In Russian. Therapy & follow-up of 136 patients showed that, as compared to traditional therapeutic modalities, AP was effective as part of a combined therapeutic approach to treat nonspecific salpingo-oophoritis. AP therapy shortens in-hospital therapy, normalises the immunobiologic defence & of the ANS, & reduces the incidence of recurrence of the condition.

296#Tong LG; Cui HM (1988) [Experiences in clinical uses of point BL54]. Sichuan TCM 6 (3):40. This paper presents some experiences on AP at BL54 with 3 case reports attached, including sciatica, defective ejaculation & postpartum retention of urine.

297#Tong WT (1981) Breast augmentation by AP. Med J Aust Jan 10; 1(1):44. Letter.

298#Tremeau ML; Fontanie-Ravier P; Teurnier F; Demouzon J (1992) Protocol of cervical maturation by AP. J de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 21(4):375-380. INSERM, Unit┌ 292, Le Kremlin-Bic█tre, France. 98 patients were assigned to 3 groups: 1=Control; 2=Placebo; 3=AP treatment. It was possible to improve cervical maturation if AP sessions were given at the start of the 9th mo. Bishop-scores in the 3 groups after 10 d interval show that there was a significant progression of 2.61 points in the AP-Group, compared with only 0.89 & 1.08 in the placebo & control groups.

299#Tret'iakova EE, Komissarov VI (1990) [Characteristics of the electric activity of the projection areas of the large hemispheres in children with enuresis- Article in Russian]. Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im SS Korsakova 90(8):41-44. EEG changes in enuresis may be determined by functional changes in the level of excitability of the cerebral cortex & deranged intercentral relations. 62 children, 9-14 yr-old, with enuresis had EEG tests. Assay of alpha-activity & study of its correlation dependence showed decreased excitability of the projection zones of the cortex of the large hemispheres & weakening of functional conjugation between them. The status of the sensory & integrative brain structures tended to normalise after a complex of treatment programme, including AP, intake of nootropic agents & vitamin-therapy.

300#Tsai TJ, Chen CF (1993) Effects of heat therapy on renal haemodynamics, compensatory hypertrophy & glomerulonephritis in rats. Nephron Feb 63:207-213. To investigate whether back heating (BH) affects renal function, we applied an electric heating pad on the back skin overlying the kidneys in rats. In the acute experiment on saline-expanded, normal conscious rats, BH up to 42 + 1 degC for 15 min induced diuresis, natriuresis, kalliuresis, increased urinary kallikrein excretion as well as an increase in renal blood & plasma flow & glomerular filtration rate (GFR). When the rats were uninephrectomised & subjected to either BH twice/d for 1 wk or a sham procedure, the study group showed a higher GFR/gram kidney weight & a higher increase in kidney/body weight ratio. When the rats were injected daily with cationic bovine serum albumin for 30 d & then subjected to either BH twice/d for 26 d or a sham procedure, the BH group showed a higher degree of proteinuria during the recovery period & a higher kidney/body weight ratio on d 27. Acute BH for 15 min in anaesthetised rats increased body temperature, perirenal temperature, heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output & cardiac index. Taken together, these results suggest that BH may affect the kidneys in normal & pathologic states. These effects may be at least partly related to a change in systemic haemodynamics.

301#Tsenov D (1993) [The treatment of the repercussion diencephalic syndrome in gynaecology: AP therapy - Article in Bulgarian]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia) 32 (3):34-36. Obstetricians must know the repercussion diencephalic syndrome because the genital diseases can provoke it. Treatment is often difficult. The most efficient is earlier, complete & adequate treatment. Treatment usually is symptomatic. The author presents 3 cases with reflex diencephalic syndrome after gynaecological disease treated with AP & EAP: LV01, LV07, CV01, CV03, CV06, SP06, SP15. The effect is very good.

302#Tsenov D (1996) [The effect of AP in dysmenorrhoea - Article in Bulgarian]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia) 35 (3):24-25. The author assumed the task study the effect of treatment dysmenorrhoea by AP. Object of the study were 48 women in reproductive age divided in 2 groups: 1st group, 24 women with primary dysmenorrhoea; 2nd group, 24 women with secondary dysmenorrhoea. AP points: LI04, SP06, SP10, ST30, ST36 CV02, CV03, PC05, PC06, BL20, BL23 for 30 min. In group 1, the effect was very good after one course of 2-4 AP sessions before menstruation. In group 2, the effect was satisfactory in 50% of the cases after two AP courses. The effect of AP treatment on dysmenorrhoea depends on its kind; primary dysmenorrhoea is influenced very well, while secondary dysmenorrhoea is influenced satisfactory.

303#Tsuei JJ (1987) AP treatment in modern practice of Obs&Gyn. WFAS 1st Conf (UK):98-99. She reviewed the application of AP in Obs&Gyn. She reported on a study on the influence of AP stimulation on the pregnant & non-pregnant uterus of animals & humans. She presents results of 99 cases of APA for Dilation & Evacuation (D&E) & Dilation & Curettage (D&C). Clinical observation of AP on various female conditions such as inducing & arresting parturition, hyperemesis of pregnancy, breech presentation, recurrent vaginitis, dysmenorrhoea & cystorectocele are discussed. As obstetricians are reluctant to give any medication to pregnant women for such minor medical problems as allergy, headache & insomnia, AP offers an alternative means of relieving such symptoms.

304#Tuzuner F, Kecik Y, Ozdemir S, Canakci N (1989) EAP in the treatment of enuresis nocturna. AP Electrother Res 14(3-4):211-215. Dept. of Anesthesiology, Ibn-i Sina Hospital, Ankara Univ, Turkey. In the present survey, 162 subjects with enuresis nocturna were given EAP therapy. Specially chosen points were inserted once/d for 10 d. After therapy, the success rate was 98%.

305#Umeh BU (1986) Sacral AP for pain relief in parturition: initial clinical experience in Nigerian women. AP Electrother Res 11 (2):147-151. Sacral AP was used for pain relief during parturition in 30 pregnant Nigerian women. It produced clinically adequate analgesia in 19 women (63.3). 6 women in this group (31.6) reported that they had experienced no pain whatsoever throughout the period of parturition & delivery (average duration-8 h). 11 women (36.7) had no pain relief & required pethidine injection when sacral AP proved ineffective. 24 women (80), including 5 who did not obtain relief, indicated their wish to have sacral AP during their next confinement. 2 women (6.7) objected to needling, 3 considered AP useless while another 2 did not believe in it. The patients' cardiorespiratory functions & uterine contractions were not adversely affected. There were no untoward effects on the mothers or their neonates. The procedure was technically simple, the equipment light & cheap. The needles did not interfere with nursing or obstetric manoeuvres. The procedure was however time consuming. The results were inconsistent & unpredictable. Despite these limitations, the simplicity, cheapness & absence of physiological complications associated with the procedure, make it a worthwhile medical armament for pain relief in the Nigeria, with limited resources & specialised manpower.

306#Vallette C, Niboyet JE, Imbert-Martelet M, Roux JF (1980) APA & caesarean section. J Reprod Med Sep; 25 (3):108-112. The application of APA in obstetrics is discussed & reviewed. Of 14 patients delivered by caesarean section under AP, 57% felt no pain but 43% did not finish the entire procedure without supplementary anaesthesia. The failure & success rates are reviewed. The technique should be evaluated further because APA completely protected the foetus & mother from the secondary effects of general regional anaesthesia.

307#Vozianov AF, Pasechnikov SP, Kovtuniak ON (1991) [The laser reflexotherapy of patients with chronic prostatitis - Article in Russian]. Vrach Delo Feb; 2:45-48. Aiming to improve the results of treatment of chronic prostatitis, they used reflexotherapy at body- & Ear- points. The method has advantages over existing traditional methods. A multiple-criteria mathematical analysis was carried out of the efficacy of laser reflexotherapy in chronic prostatitis & is was 89%.

308#Wang BY (1993) [Acute mastitis treated by danshen injections at PC04. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 13(5):295. A report of 60 cases]. Let the patient take a sitting position or lie on his back & stretch out his arms with the palm facing upward. NA05-Xishang (4" below PC03 (elbow), 8" above PC07 (wrist), at the crossing point of the upper & middle 1/3 between the transverse striations of the wrist & the elbow & between the two tendons of the forearm). The contralateral NA05 was used. After local routine sterilisation, took a syringe (with a No 6 needle) to draw 4ml of Radix Salviae Mitiorrhizae (danshen) Injectio (Great-wall Pharmaceutical Factory, Zhangjaikou Hebei Province) & 1ml of the injection contains 1g of pure danshen), & inserted the needle directly into the acupoint 2 cm deep, manipulated it strongly to Deqi to spread toward the upper arm & rapidly pumped the injection into the acupoint. The treatment was given every 2 d. After 1-2 sessions, 95% were cured & 5% ineffective.

309#Wang DR (1984) [4 case records of AP & moxibustion]. J Hunan TCM Coll (3-4):70-72. Four case reports were reported: 1. Uterine bleeding. Acupoints: Group 1: GV20, CV06, SP06; group 2: CV03, KI03, LV02; Group 3. BL23, SP09; 3 groups used alternately, 10 trials as a course. 2. Enuresis. Acupoints: Group 1. HT05, CV04, KI03; Group 2. CV06, BL20, GV04; Group 3. SP06, CV03, BL28; 3 groups used alternately, 10 trials as a course. 3. Sudden Deafness: Acupoints: Group 1. GB02, LV03, GB43; Group 2. TH17, TH03, KI03; 2 groups used alternately. 4. Tenosynovial Cyst. Puncture Tianying (the mass) with a needle 1.5" in length, twisting & lifting & thrusting for 15 min.

310#Wang G; Teng ZQ; Li NQ (1988) [Radio frequency thermal controlled diathermy in the treatment of fibrocystic disease of breast: Report of 40 cases]. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 8(6):359. In this series, there were 40 cases of mammary hyperplasia. Radio-frequency temperature-control thermocoagulator (XW-I type) made by Beijing Medical Instrument Factory was used. Methods: The patient was in supine position. After local disinfection, the electro-thermal needle was inserted from the margin of mass into the centre of the mass so that the whole bare anterior therapeutic part of the needle entered into it. The temperature was self-controlled at the range of 65-75 degrees C; feedback temperature of the centre was 62-72 degrees C. The therapeutic time was 4-6 min. The distance between the positive & negative electrodes of the needle was 1 cm. Results: 2 cases were cured; 15 cases, markedly effective; 20 cases, effective; 3 cases non-effective. Total effective rate was 92.5.

311#Wang GC (1990) Enuresis treated by acupoint-area band AP. Shanxi TCM 6(4):39. Point zones: In 4 zones on anterior trunk & one zone on lower limb (the lower 1/2 of line from umbilicus to symphysis pubis & medial lower 1/3 of thigh), the Ashi point was found by finger pressing. "Rapid needle insertion, slow withdrawal, inducing Deqi, & twisting locally" was adopted. After local sterilisation, AP was used on one zone of lower limb until Deqi. Then AP was used on the zone of anterior trunk till Deqi spread to the perineum or penis. Treatment was once/d; the needle was retained for 30 min & manipulated once/10 min. 7/10 cases were cured (no enuresis over 1 yr & the Ashi point disappeared), 2 markedly effective (occasional enuresis) after 10 treatments, & 1 was markedly effective after 2 treatments.

312#Wang JR; Li ZF (1986) [Pruritus vulvae treated by EAP combined with moxibustion]. Henan TCM (4):32. Pruritus vulvae is a common disease seen in the department of Obs&Gyn. EAP + moxa at CV04 & SP06 gave satisfactory results in pruritus vulvae. After Deqi, EAP was applied for 20-30 min, & moxa was used simultaneously. In these cases, moxa is more important than AP because it can warm & dredge the Channel, promote the circulation of Qi-Xue, dispel Damp & Cold from the Channel.

313#Wang LL (1990) Brief exploration on AP with different time in Neijing. J Nanjing Coll TCM 6(1):52-53. The yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal medicine has taken the selection of time in shooting of crossbow as example to show the importance of selection of time in treatment of disease by AP was to activate the homeostatic function of the body, eliminate pathogenic factors & support healthy Qi, correct relative Shi & Xu of Yin & Yang in Shi or Xu Syndrome, the time of appearance of symptoms was selected to AP. The time of Qi in Yang & Qi in Yin was selected to AP, for example, needling 1 h before fever in tidal fever, before sleep in night-sweat, in the after noon or at night in insomnia & enuresis, 1 wk before menstruation, etc.

314#Wang QJ; Li ZM; Wang Y (1987) [Earpoint pressure therapy of enuresis: Analysis of 103 cases]. Chin AP Moxibust 7(6):21. 103 cases of enuresis were treated by acupressure at Earpoints KI, BL, Urethra, Brain, Exciting Point, & Endocrine (all bilateral). After routine sterilisation, Vaccaria Seeds were taped at the Earpoints with plaster. Patients were asked to press the seeds 2-3 times/d until they felt soreness & distension. Seeds were changed every 4 d. 16/103 cases were cured, 54 were markedly effective, & 29 were effective; total effective rate was 96%.

315#Wang SR (1987) [Deep needling at CV04: Report of 5 cases]. Guangxi TCM Mater Med 10 (2):32-33. Point selection. Patients in prone position, two 3.5" needles used after local sterilisation, inserted the needle in vertical direction & twisted & then inserted obliquely to medial side. When the needle was inserted into 2.5" near the nerve to obtain deqi by Bu Fa-Xie Fa, or continuously inserted to 2.5-3" until Deqi occurs. This method may be applied in treating diseases of lumbosacral region, digestive system (g/i tract, liver & gallbladder), urogenital system, gynaecology & nerve injuries below lumbar region & disorder of motor function, etc. Case reports were given on the following aspects: 1. impotence, 2. menorrhalgia, 3. diarrhoea before dawn, 4. abnormal sensation of extremities (acroparaesthesia), 5. urgency & frequency of urination.

316#Wang TD; Hu FX; Zhang ZG (1987) [Enuresis treated by scalp-AP]. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 7(8):505. 163 cases of enuresis were divided in-to two groups: Group A with simple Scalp-AP: bilateral Foot-Motor-Sensory Areas were used, with EAP for 20 min every 2 d. This method is suitable for patients with slight symptoms & a short course of disease; Group B receiving combined AP & medicine: Scalp-AP combined with Chinese medicine, for example, "Suoquanwan" ("Reducing Enuresis Pills") or other drugs based on the Differentiation of Syndromes; oral meclifenoxane was used in a few cases. 10 times/course. Of 76 cases of group A, 61% completely recovered, 26% markedly improved & 13% failed. Of 87 cases in group B, 33% were cured, 40% improved, & 26% failed. The total effective rate of the two groups was 80%. Follow-up in 76 cases (from 5-46 mo) showed a total effective rate of 67%.

317#Wang Y; Wang QH (1984) [AP in the treatment of uterine haemorrhage during caesarean section: A case report]. Jiangxi JTCM Pharmacol (4):12. The case, 36 yr old, 4 mo pregnant, was operated by minor caesarean section to abort a large foetus. During the operation, there was sudden haemorrhage from the vagina causing shock, immediate AP treatment was given at GV20, GV26, LI04 on both sides, both PC06 & both SP10. These were stimulated by EAP with Bu Fa method. 20 min later, BP was increasing, & the haemorrhage was stopped.

318#Wang Y; Wang QH (1988) [AP in the treatment of eclampsia]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 7 (1):46. Before parturition, a 24-yr old primiparous woman she suffered from mental stress, vibration at angle of mouth, & convulsion of the extremities. These symptoms attacked 2-3 times/d. After childbirth, she became semicomatose & had such symptoms as intermittent convulsion, opisthotonus, urinary & faecal incontinence. Puerperal eclampsia gravidarum was diagnosed. GV26 & KI01 were needled strongly, & then moderate stimulation at ST36, SP06, SP10, LI04, LI11 & CV12 was given. The needles were retained for 20 min & then removed. After AP, the convulsion was stopped & the mind was conscious. The patient was then given a modified decoction for postpartum troubles on the second d, & cured.

319#Wang YC (1987) [Clinical application of surrounding needling manipulation]. Xinjiang TCM (2):37-38. Surrounding needling manipulation (Circling the Dragon) is to use AP needles to insert obliquely around affected area (Tianying point) into affected area or its centre. Then different manipulations & proper duration for retaining needles are taken in line with disease condition. This paper describes experience obtained by the author in using surrounding needling manipulation in coordination with body AP, EAP, herbs & etc. to cure cases with simple goitre, male nodules of breast, subcutaneous cycticercosis, ganglion, skin neuritis lateral to the femur, & pain caused by soft tissue injury of joint.

320#Wang YL (1985) [Clinical use of SI03]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust (3):35. SI03 is a point on SI Channel of hand Taiyang as well as one of the points where 8 Extra Channels meet. It arises at the perineum. Cases with stiffness & pain on the neck & head, hysteria, acute lumbar sprain, urticaria, malaria, pustulosis were punctured & marked results obtained.

321#Wang ZM (1984) [He-Ne laser irradiation at BL60 in the correction of abnormal foetal presentation: A clinical study]. Chin J Phys Ther (4):198-199. This paper discusses the use of He-Ne laser-AP to correct foetal malpresentation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the points irradiated. Group A: BL60; Group B: BL67. He-Ne laser (3-4 mW, 0.3 Mw output power of tight guide fibre) was used to irradiate the points vertically. Group A: 5 min at unilateral point, once/d, the points at both sides were irradiated alternately. Group B: the bilateral points were irradiated simultaneously or successively, 5 min/point/d. Foetal presentation was checked by obstetric examination or B-ultrasound before each treatment. Curative effect: Group A 76%; Group B 74%. There is no significant difference between the two groups. However, when gestational period was <=32 wk, the rate of correction was higher. The study proved that to correct abnormal foetal presentation by He-Ne laser irradiation at BL60 was effective. It had certain advantages than the irradiation at BL67.

322#Wei W (1992) [Current status of clinical application of Earpoint sticking]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 11(2):35-37. Earpoint pellet pressure therapy has been extensively applied to treat various diseases including 1) medical diseases: cholelithiasis, acute icterohepatitis, primary hypertension, tachycardia & respiratory disease; 2) dermatosis: nettle rash (urticaria), acne, chloasma, vitiligo & cutaneous pruritus; 3) diseases of eye, ear, nose, throat & oral cavity, myopia, hordeolum, blepharitis ciliaris, chronic pharyngitis, rhinosinusitis & dysfunction of temporomandibular joint; 4) paediatric diseases: child restless leg syndrome, feeble-mindedness, anorexia, enuresis, bronchitis, asthmatic bronchitis & adiposis; 5) Gynaecopathy: irregular menstruation, abnormal foetal position, puerperal milk depletion & menopausal syndrome; 6) surgical diseases: haemorrhoid, postoperative incisional pain; 7) others: this therapy also could be used for reducing body weight, quitting smoking & gastrointestinal reactions resulted from various factors.

323#Wei XH (1985) [A few remarks of external therapies applied at the back of the external ear]. Fujian JTCM 16(5):33-35. In this paper, several external treatments used behind ear were introduced. They are 1. cauterising the posterior area of ear by lamp fire: it is used to treat sore head, facial paralysis, headache, dizziness, epistaxis, enuresis, somnolence, rubella, urticaria etc; 2. massaging mastoid process to treat neck sprain; 3. using cutaneous AP needle to tap the posterior area of ear: it is beneficial to alopecia; 4. sticking of herbal plaster on the posterior area of ear: it is used for headache, dizziness & car sickness.

324#Welgel A; Pothmann R; Stux G (1987) AP therapy with laser beam. J AP (Indian) 4(8):7-10. They briefly review the clinical use of Laser-AP internationally, esp. in West Germany. They also review its therapeutic effect of treating headache, migraine, chronic sinusitis, bronchial asthma & nocturnal enuresis, then it summarises the advantages, limitations, dangers & contraindications of Laser-AP therapy.

325#Wu HP; Bi LY; Xu CS (1989) Clinical observation of 50 cases of postoperative incisional pain treated by Earpoint pressure. JTCM(ENG) 9(3):187-189. This reported on Earpoint acupressure to treat 50 cases of postoperative incisional pain. 50 postsurgical cases were selected randomly for study. Surgery included cholecystectomy & open drainage of choledochus, subtotal gastrectomy & gastrojejunostomy, thyroid lobectomy, high ligation & repair of the inguinal hernia, open ureterolithotomy & appendectomy. The control group was 50 surgical cases given Dolantin & Rutondin postoperatively. Corresponding sensitive Earpoints were used, with Shenmen as the Helper point. A detector was used to detect sensitive Earpoints for application of pressure. In general, one point & one helper point were used. On the sensitive point was put a rape seed or a head of a match, & fixed with a 2 cm2 piece of adhesive plaster & pressed for 1-3 min with the fingers. When the incisional pain sets in, the patient was told to press the plaster for 1-3 min. 45/50 cases in the AP group had pain relief after the first pressing of 1-2 min, 2 cases after the second pressing, & 3 cases had no effect after the third pressing & i/m analgesic was needed. The effective rate was 94%, & the failed rate 6%. 6/50 (12%) control cases needed repeated i/m injections of Dolantin. Statistically, the results of the two groups showed no significant difference.

326#Wu JJ (1992) [Observation on 53 cases of chronic prostatitis with AP treatment]. Chin AP Moxibust 12 (3):127-128. 53 cases of prostatitis were treated with AP & another 53 with medication in the control group. Main points: AP at CV04, BL23 (both sides), BL31 (both sides), once/d. 25 cured, 22 improved, 6 unchanged. The cure rate of the two groups was 47 & 21% respectively. The significant (p<.005) difference indicated that the effect of AP is better than that of medication.

327#Wu JQ (1986) [Enuresis treated by Earpoint injections of small dosage of vitamin B12]. Fujian JTCM 17(1):24. Satisfactory results were achieved in 298 cases of enuresis treated by Earpoint injection of a small dose, 0.2 ml (100 ug or 250 ug) of Vitamin B12/point at bilateral Earpoints KI & BL, 2-3 times/wk, for 5 times/course, with an interval of 1 wk between courses. 104/298 cases were cured after one course of treatment, 85 after two courses & 46 after three courses. The total effective rate was 81%, 55 cases with marked effect (18%); 8 cases failed (2%).

328#Wu JZ; Zhang Q; Wu WC (1989) 100 cases of impotence treated by AP & moxibustion. JTCM(ENG) 9(3):184-185. On the basis of the theory of viscera & channels of TCM, in combination with the regional neuro-anatomy, 100 cases of impotence were treated with AP & moxibustion. Acupoints were selected on the BL, CV & LV Channels, located at the same or nearby nerve segments related to the sexual centre. Main points: BL32, CV02, LV11, & LV01. Helper points: for insomnia, add GV20 & PC06; for general weakness, anorexia & constipation, add ST36. A 2.5" needle was used. When BL32 & LV11 are needled, Deqi (sensation of soreness, distension & heaviness) should have been achieved; in needling CV02 an electric shock sensation radiating to the base of the urethra should have been experienced. Moxa roll moxibustion was applied to LV01 for 5 min, using the bird-pecking method with sufficient heat. AP was used once every 2-3 d, 10 times/course. Throughout therapy, moxa was used 1-2 times/d. After treatment, 63% were cured (normal sexual activity >2 times/wk), 10% were improved (coitus once/wk) & 13% ineffective, with no sexual capacity after 5 courses of treatment.

329#Wu SQ (1987) [Early stage of mastitis treated by finger pressure at Ashi point]. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 7(7):439. Points were selected on the contralateral side. When mastitis was found on the right, the most sensitive Ashi was selected on the left elbow joint (middle, upper, lower). Reinforcing effect was obtained by pressing in the direction of the Channel, & reducing effect by pressing in the opposite direction of the Channel. Acupressure was applied for 20 min, corresponding with patients' respiration. The patients were in relax position. The force of pressing should be tolerable by the patient. Treatment was once/d for 3 d/course. External compress was applied with liquid mixture of 70 g powder of red Phaseolus bean (Semen Phaseoli), 30 g sodium sulphate & borneol when patients had markedly red & oedematous breasts. Of 35 cases, 30 were cured, 4 markedly improved & 1 ineffective.

330#Wu XJ; Cui YL; Yang BY (1987) Observations on the effect of He-Ne laser acupoint radiation in chronic pelvic inflammation. JTCM 7 (4):263-265. 38 patients of chronic pelvic inflammation including cases of ovaritis, ovarian cysts, salpingitis & periuteritis were treated by acupoint radiation with a low power He-Ne laser. Selected points were CV06, CV03, BL23, SP10 & SP06. The wave-length was 6328A, output power 4 mw, light spot diameter 1-2 mm & distance of radiation approximately 0.5 cm. Acupoints were irradiated for 5 min, 4 times/session, 4 sessions/wk. 10 sessions constituted one therapeutic course. The second course was started after a 7-10 d rest. The cured & markedly effective rate was 61%; total effective rate was 86%. Symptoms of insomnia, dream-disturbed sleep & listlessness were often markedly improved.

331#Wu ZS; Cai XA; Xu MJ (1988) [AP in the treatment of hirsutism & study on rheology]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 7 (3):10-12. In this series, there were 15 cases of hirsutism with various degrees of Xue-Stasis symptoms including PCOS (8 cases), irregular menstruation (4 cases), over-taking of prednisolone (2 cases) & having hirsutism parents (1 case). Points: BL17, BL18, BL20, SP10, SP06, LI04, LU07 (all bilateral). For back Shu points, needle was obliquely inserted to a depth of 1.2" with its tip directing toward vertebral body; for SP10 & SP06, needle was inserted obliquely to a depth of 1.2" with its tip directing downward; for LU07, oblique needle insertion to the depth of 0.7" was used with its tip directing to the elbow; for LI04, perpendicular needle insertion was used. Treatment was given QOD, 15 times/course. After 2 courses, AP had definite effects on the density & length of hair, & improved the blood viscosity & various Xue-Stasis symptoms. AP improved blood circulation & removed Xue Stasis.

332#Wyon Y, Hammar M, Theodorsson E, Lundeberg T (1998) Effects of physical activity & AP on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity in different parts of the rat brain & in cerebrospinal fluid, serum & urine. Acta Physiol Scand Apr; 162 (4):517-522. Dept of Health & Environment, Obs&Gyn, Univ Hospital, Linkoping, Sweden. CGRP is a very potent vasodilator in the nervous system, & may be involved in hot flushes experienced by most women around menopause. Flushing post-menopausal women had higher urinary excretion of CGRP before than after successful treatment of their flushes with AP. The prevalence of vasomotor symptoms is lower in physically active women. In a rat model we therefore intended to assess whether AP & exercise affected CGRP concentrations in different parts of the brain & peripherally. The aim of the study was to elucidate the short- & long-term effects of exercise & AP on CGRP concentrations in the nervous system of normal adult rats. In a rat model, we examined the effects of single interventions & long-term treatment with physical exercise & manual or EAP on CGRP concentrations in urine, cerebrospinal fluid & serum & different parts of the brain. In all compartments studied, but significantly only in the cerebrospinal fluid, CGRP increased after a single session of physical exercise or EAP. Manual AP did not change CGRP concentrations in any compartment. Rats had the highest concentrations of CGRP in the pituitary & hypothalamus but the concentrations did not differ significantly between control rats & those subjected to long-term treatment with manual or EAP or running rats. Rats treated with EAP had twice the CGRP concentration in the frontal cortex compared to control rats, albeit the difference did not reach statistical significance. Evidently manual & EAP have different effects, whereas EAP & physical exercise have more similar effects on CGRP production and/or release. To elucidate the role of CGRP in vasomotor symptoms, further studies with older flushing rats should be performed.

333#Wyon Y, Lindgren R, Hammar M, Lundeberg T (1994) [AP against climacteric disorders? Lower number of symptoms after menopause - Article in Swedish]. Lakartidningen Jun 8; 91 (23):2318-2322. Halsouniversitetet, Linkoping. Vasomotor symptoms are very common among perimenopausal women, but also among castrated men. The cause of the symptoms is not the low steroid concentrations per se, but probably changes in central neuropeptide activity. 24 healthy women with natural menopause, suffering from hot flushes, were studied. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1=EAP; 2=SNP (AP by shallow needling; treatment for a total of 8 wk (twice/wk for 2 wk; then once/wk for the remaining 6 wk). From the participants' logbooks, the frequency of flushes decreased significantly by >50% in both groups. It remained decreased in the EAP group, but it increased slightly again over the 3 mo post-treatment in the SNP group. Kupperman Index values decreased in both groups during treatment; changes were still evident at 3-mo follow-up, whereas self-rated general climacteric symptoms (VAS) decreased significantly only in the EAP group. The PGWB (Psychological General Well-Being) index did not change significantly in either group during treatment. Randomised controlled trial.

334335#Xia YQ; Qi RM; Xu HL (1987) [Electrothermic-AP in the treatment of kraurosis vulvae: Report of 55 cases]. JTCM 28(9):48-49. The purpose of applying heat to the diseased site is to regulate Qi & Xue circulation, dredge the Channels & disperse & soften the mass. A heated needle was inserted obliquely with an angle of 35 degree or 15 degree to the surface into the white patch to a depth of 1.5 cm. After 5-10 min surface temperature was controlled at 37 C degree to 42 C degree, & the needle was retained for 30-40 min. Treatment was once every 1-2 d, for 30 times/course. 44/55 cases of leukoplakia vulvae treated were cured, 8 markedly effective, 1 improved & 2 failed. The total effective rate was 96%. Also: Xia YQ; Xu HL; Qi RM (1987) [Report on therapeutic effect of leukoplakia vulvae by the treatment of Electrothermic-AP]. WFAS 1st Conf (Eng):20-22. In TCM, leukoplakia vulvae is classified into "vulva pruritus" & "vulva erosion", & its main causes are; impaired flow of Qi & Xue which cause Damp-Heat to descend; or Xu of LV & KI which causes inability to sustain Essence & Xue. 112 cases presented in this article were diagnosed according to the classification cited by International Association of Vulva Diseases, & were treated by Electrothermic-AP according to the theory of Cui Ci (Five Needling) of TCM-AP. The number of needles depends upon the area of disease & that of heat radiation from the Electrothermic-AP. The needles are inserted obliquely 15-35 deg with the dermatomucosa of the affected region for 1.5 cm deep. Needles are retained from 30-40 min. Treat every 1-2 d, for 30 times/course. Short-term result: 66/112 cured, 20 were markedly effective & 24 were effective; total effective rate was 98%. Long-term effect: a follow-up study on cases 6 mo after they had stopped AP treatment showed that 52/58 cases (90%) had unchanged level of therapeutic effect, but 6 cases (10%) had relapsed. No other treatment had been given after the AP stopped.

336#Xiao F (1993) [Clinical application of deep needling at CV02]. J Shandong Coll TCM 17 (4):247-249. This article presents the method of deep needling at CV02 & its clinical applications. Compared with routine method, some special procedures are required: 1.Preparation before needling. The patient is asked to pass his urine, & the operator must carefully sterilise the point-area. 2. Manipulation of the deep needling, a 3-4" needle is used. Firstly it is inserted into the skin & subcutaneous tissues perpendicularly, then obliquely at an angle of 45-60 forward slowly. Usually an feeling of emptiness is got when the tip of the needle goes into the space between the symphysis pubis & the bladder. If not, the inserting should be stopped. After that, the needle can be further inserted slowly. In most cases an obvious resistance presents when the tip of the needle reaches 3" below, which is a mark of the depth of needling. 3. Method for getting Qi, a thrusting & rotating with slow & soft manipulation & small amplitude is used, quick & violent thrusting & rotating method with big amplitude is forbidden. Clinically, satisfactory effects can be achieved by application of this method in the treatments of andropathy, gynaecological diseases & diseases of the urinary system, especially impotence, dysmenorrhoea, prostatitis, hypertrophy of the prostate gland & urolithiasis. Different from the routine needling method, the new one brings stronger Deqi & is more effective, & causes no side-effects as long as is performed properly.

337#Xie CL (1986) [EAP & infrared radiation in the treatment of sciatica: 100 cases]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 5(1):18. A needle was inserted at GB30 toward the perineum at a depth of 3" deep & another needle at GB34 through SP09 at a depth of 2.5-3". After getting Deqi (which may descend down to the legs), the needle handles were connected to a G-6805 EAP instrument. The positive electrode was connected to the Ashi ("pain") point; EAP was by a continuous wave. Simultaneously, a 250 W infrared-ray lamp was used to irradiate the skin, at an interval of 15-20 cm, for 20 min once/d, for 10 times/course, with 4-5 d interval between courses. 59 cases were cured (short-term effect); 44, marked effect; & 7, improved.

338#Xie HB (1986) [AP in the treatment of acute mastitis. 124 cases]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 5(1):16.

339#Xiong XN (1982) Moxibustion of CV17 & massage of SI11 in 47 cases of acute mastitis. JTCM 1982 Jun; 2(2):109-10.

340#Xiong XQ, Huang DJ (1992) [New approach to the rule for the indication of the X_35-Jiaji point]. J AP Moxibust 8(2):44-45. X_35-Huatojiaji points regulate Qi & Xue in many Channels as well as the function of many internal organs. X_35 is indicated in all the chronic diseases & certain acute or severe diseases. It has the same function as that of the points on the GV (and BL Channel: Rogers) & is indicated in apoplectic hemiplegia, acute pain in the lumbar spine, atrophy, senile paralysis & so forth. It replaces the Shu point to treat various diseases in the internal organs. For instance, if one needles the X_35 beside the Shu points of HT (BL15), PC (BL14) & Diaphragm (BL17), one may treat angina pectoris. If X_35 beside the Shu of LV & GB is needled, one may treat stomach (? abdominal) colic. If X_35 near the Shu of KI (BL23) & Qihaishu (BL24) is needled, one may treat KI colic. X_35 is indicated in diseases where the Channel / Vessel Qi passes, such as pain due to numbness in the limb, cough, asthma, mental excitement & fatigue, blurred eyes, loss of appetite, distended abdomen, bellyache, diarrhoea, insomnia, dreaminess, timidity, diabetes, dropsy, incontinence, retention etc. As regards various kinds of cancer, needling the related X_35 points may make the patient feel comfortable & sharpen his appetite. It may regulate yin, yang, Qi & blood, sober the brain, calm the spirit & treat the mental diseases. It regulates Qi, Xue, the Chongmai points & the CV. It treats irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhoea, metrorrhagia & metrostaxis, flooding & leucorrhoea.

341#Xu BR; Ge SH; Meng FY (1987) [Results of AP treatment in 80 cases of chronic prostatitis]. Chin AP Moxibust 7 (2):19-20. They reported on 80 cases of chronic prostatitis treated by AP. 40% were completely cured. The effects of AP at BL35 & BL23 were better than at other points such as CV04, CV03, GB34 & SP06. AP at BL35 may stimulate the pelvic plexus of the prostate so as to regulate the blood circulation at the local region of the gland.

342#Xu F Z (1989) [Current status of clinical uses of Ear-AP in emergencies]. J Luzhou Med Coll 12 (1):74-76. The status of Ear-AP in treating acute cases was indicated in the following: History of Ear-AP in treating acute cases, such as mania, epilepsy, syncope, etc. was recorded in ancient TCM literature. 50+ acute diseases were so treated, such as acute bacterial dysentery, haemorrhagic fever, shock, etc. Prevention of acute diseases, such as acute infectious diseases, shock postpartum massive haemorrhage, etc. Foreign research on Ear-AP in treating acute diseases. The application of Ear-AP in treating common diseases was carried out in tens of countries & areas, such as Germany, America, etc. We need to develop research on Ear-AP.

343#Xu JY (1994) [Gynaecopathy treated with ear point AP: experience of professor Zhang He Yuan]. J Guiyang Coll TCM 16 (1):30-31. Leucorrhagia due to SP Xu: Use moxa at SP, LU, Uterus; due to KI Xu: KI, Endocrine, Uterus, Ovary. Downward flow of Damp-Heat: SP, Adrenal, Uterus, Pelvis. Mammary hyperplasia: LV, ST, Mammary Gland; Endocrine, Ovary may be added according to circumstances. Sterilise Earpoints; tape on dried Vaccaria Seeds & have patient press them. Dilatation of cervix: Uterus. Cervical adhesion (or if AP at Uterus alone not effective), add Ovary, Endocrine, Sympathetic Nerve, with gentle twisting-rotating manipulation. Functional maladjustment of endocrine: KI, SP, Endocrine; HT, Adrenal, Ovary may be used as Helper points. 1 proven case report was annexed under each condition.

344#Xu WB (1984) [Treatment of male infertility by AP]. 2nd Natl Symp AP-Mox & APA (Beijing):69-70. Patients with infertility caused by oligospermia, immobility of spermatozoon or lengthening the liquefiable time of semen had AP treatment. In TCM theory, male infertility falls in the category of heirless. TCM teaches: "The KI is the foundation of the native constitution; The SP provides the material basis of the acquired constitution; The CV unites all the Yin of the body; the Chongmai is a sea of the twelve Channels". Following those teachings, we selected points mainly from these Channels: KI06, KI03; SP06, SP08 & SP09; ST36; CV06, CV04 & BL23, BL52. These points were divided into two groups, used alternatively every 1-2 d until d 21. Then after an interval of 7-10 d, the second course was begun. The method of lifting, trusting & rotating was used. After Deqi, the needle was retained for 15-20 min. When puncturing CV04 & CV06, it is preferable that Deqi is propagated to the front genitals. After painless inserting of the needle, lift, thrust & turn it until Deqi occurred. In some points, such as CV04 & CV06, the effect would never be marked unless Deqi propagated to the front genital. Then retain the needle for 15-20 min. AP gave good results in 8/11 patients (73%).

345#Xu WP (1988) [Traumatic orchitis treated by AP]. J Zhejiang TCM Coll 12 (4):28. A male, aged 36 yr, had his testis atrophied after trauma. The diagnosis was traumatic orchitis. LV01, KI02, ST36, CV04, ST29 & BL23 were needled by uniform Bu Fa-Xie Fa. After three sessions, the pain disappeared.

346#Xu XP (1989) Chronic prostatitis treated with laser-AP. East-West Pain Conference (Beijing, 1989):97. Distending pain in perineum is one of the main symptoms of chronic prostatitis. He-Ne laser-AP was used to treat 44 cases of chronic prostatitis, aged 21-82, mostly with a history of 1-10 yr. The parameters for laser-generator were: 6328A, 1.5mW output. Through the light fibres within the needle (0.32mm O.D.) which was inserted into the AP point, laser-beam is led to appropriate depth (1-4cm) of the tissue, thereby a combined effect of AP & laser was produced. Main points were "Prostate point" (CV01), BL30, BL32, etc. The needle was remained in each point for 10-30min. The treatment was given QD or QOD, 4-5 points in each treatment, 10 treatments made a course. After 2 courses of treatment, 33 (75) cases showed complete disappearance of the distending pain in perineum, rectal examination showed almost normal appearance & examination of prostate fluid showed marked improvement. In 11 cases (25%), pain remained in various degrees.

348#Xu ZZ (1988) [He-Ne laser in the treatment of enuresis in children: Report of 101 cases]. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 8(3):248. In this series, there were 10 cases of enuresis in children. Points, CV01, CV03 & SP06 were usually chosen. For loss of appetite, ST36 was added; for frequent desire of urination, Enuresis Area was added; for occult spina bifida, Ashi point was added. Laser for 5 min/point, for 10 times/course, with 10 d interval between courses; usually 1-3 courses were required. 47 cases were cured; 50 cases improved; 4 cases unchanged. Follow-up results: 51 cases were cured; 43 cases improved; 7 cases unchanged.

349#Xue JG (1988) [AP at CV02 in the treatment of leucorrhoea]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 7 (1):47. Manipulation: AP was performed on CV02 in a depth of 2.5-3.0" vertically or slight obliquely to perineal region. The effect may be more pronounced if Deqi is experienced in the vagina. The needles were twirled every 10 min with mild reinforcing (Bu) & reducing (Xie) method. The therapy was performed every 3 d. For patient suffered with Cold & Damp Syndrome, revolving moxibustion was performed with moxa stick for half an hour.

350#Xue YZ (1989) [Impotence treated by injection at acupoints: Report of 104 cases]. Pract J Integ Chin Mod Med 2 (4):41-42. One case of urinary tract infection, one case of prostatitis, 3 cases of aspermia without organic disease. Duration of problem: 2 mo to 15 yr. Therapy: Main point: GV01, Helper points: GV04, BL23. Medicine: Vit B1 (2 ml) & Vit B12 X 2, mixed up for point-injection. Therapeutic effect: 98 cases cured, 5 cases effective, one case ineffective.

351#Yaman LS; Kilic S; Sarica K; Bayar M; Saygin B (1994) The place of AP in the management of psychogenic impotence. European Urology 26(1):52-55. Dept of Urol, Univ of Ankara, Med Sch Ibn-I Sina Hospital, Turkey. Successful sexual function is complex, involving psychological & social responses as well as neurological, biochemical & vascular processes. Is believed that >50% of sexual dysfunction cases have an organic aetiology. Currently, reflecting the controversy over the management of psychogenic impotence, several methods are used clinically. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the curative effects of AP therapy in men with purely psychogenic impotence. 20/29 men treated with AP had successful erections after a varying number of AP sessions. AP may be an effective alternative in the management of purely psychogenic impotence.

352#Yan H; Wang J (1994) The clinical study on hysteromyoma treated with AP. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu - AP Research 19(2):14-16. Jin Hai An (Golden Coast) Central Hospital of Zhuhai City, Guangdong, PRC. Hysteromyoma is a very common female disease; there is no specific therapy except for surgery. We used AP to treat it & we used TCM & WM treatments as a control at the same time. AP treatment was better than medical treatment. The total effective rate was 98% & cure rate 73%.

353#Yan JJ (1989) [Current status of clinical uses of umbilicus sticking therapy]. J Pract Tradit Chin Intern Med 3 (3):15-17. The author describes the status of umbilical drug compress in recent years. Types of umbilical compress: 1. fill-up with drug powder, paste or cake on umbilicus, 2. application of drug plaster on umbilicus. Clinical application: children diseases including infantile diarrhoea, infantile anorexia & malnutrition, urine incontinence, night-crying: gynaecologic diseases including menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, fertility, postpartum urine retention; internal diseases including abdominal pain, dysentery, urine retention, jaundice, distension; & other diseases as intractable oral ulcer, correction of Qigong deviation. 3. precautions & contraindications: Pay attention to skin protection & no use of this method when the diseases undiagnosed.

354#Yan QL; Gong X (1988) [Progress in clinical uses of Earpoint pressure therapy]. Inf TCM (1):37-38, 7. 1. Clinical application: a. internal medicine: cholelithiasis, urolithiasis, obesity, neurasthenia, bronchial asthma, etc. b. surgery: for analgesia. c. gynaecology: disorders of genital & endocrine systems. d. paediatrics: pyrexia, enuresis. e. ophthalmology: myopia. f. miscellaneous. 2. Material & methods. Usually Vaccaria seeds, plastic pills, magnetic beads or Mung beans are used, mainly by imbedding method. 3. Precautions: accurate location of ear points, strict asepsis & prevention of allergy to adhesives.

355#Yan QR (1988) [AP in the treatment of inguinal hernia in infant: A case report]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 7(4):45-46. A baby, male, 6 mo, suffering from Husben (inguinal hernia) was treated by AP in accordance with the principle of elevating by the primordial Qi. Points along Channels: LV03, LV05, SP12 on the left side were punctured with mountain burning manipulation. After needle withdrawal, Frutus Foeniculi was applied on the umbilicus. No relapse was found in the follow-up study conducted 2 yr afterwards.

356#Yan RM; Nan SZ; Meng GY (1984) [Treatment of white lesion of vulva based on the Differentiation of Syndromes according to the theory of Channels & Collaterals]. 2nd Natl Symp AP-Mox & APA (Beijing):88-89. 71 patients were divided into two groups. 1. AP group (n=44). Main points: BL23, K111, Zhiyang (itching-stopped point, Extra), SP06 or LV05. They were alternately applied. For cases with atrophy of vulva, BL20 & SP10 were added; while for itching, LV11 & Zuogu (ischiadic point, Extra) were added. 2. Point injection group (n=27). Two pairs of points: BL23, Yinlian & BL20, Zuogu point were applied alternately. 1-2 ml of Radix Saliviae Miltiorrhizae Solution was injected/point. Add Zhiyang in cases of itching. Treatment was once every 1-2 d (interrupted during menstrual period) for 10-15 times/course. 13/71 cases were cured, 26 markedly improved, 29 effective. Only 3 cases failed. The total effective rate was 96%.

357#Yanai N; Shalev E; Yagudin E (1987) [The use of EAP during parturition]. Am J AP 15 (4):311-312. AP analgesic & tranquillising effect was evaluated during parturition on 16 parturients. Pain relief was measured by means of a patient's questionnaire & medical attendant's questionnaires. Both patients & medical personnel evaluated pain relief on a graded scale before & after AP treatment. Of the treated patients, 56.25 reported mild to good pain relief & 81.2 relaxed. The midwives noted pain relief in 93.75 & tranquillising effect in 81.2. The physicians reported mild to good pain relief in 87.5 of the patients. This simple, non-invasive & inexpensive method can be a good analgesic during parturition.

358#Yang CP (1988) AP of Guanyuan (CV04) & Baihui (GV20) in the treatment of 500 cases of enuresis. JTCM (ENG) 8(3):197. AP at CV04 & GV20 was used with good results to treat 500 cases of enuresis. To avoid injury, patients had to empty bladder before AP. CV04 was punctured straight in to 0.5-1" deep, depending on the patients' body build. It was necessary to make Deqi spread to the genitalia. GV20 was punctured horizontally & anteriorly. Needles were retained in both points for 30 min & manipulated with an even Bu Fa-Xie Fa every 5 min. Treatment was once/d, & 1-2 treatments generally effected a cure. 476/500 cases were cured, 14 cases improved & 10 cases failed. The overall effective rate was 98.

359#Yang DL (1985) AP therapy in 49 cases of postpartum urinary retention. JTCM 5(1):26. Among the 49 cases of urinary retention 19 had spontaneous micturition restored after 1 session, 23 responded after 2 sessions, 5 after 3 sessions & 2 after 4. All 49 cases were completely cured after a mean of 1.9 sessions. SP06 & ST36 on the right side were punctured 1.5-2.0 cm deep & moderate stimulation was applied. Needles were retained for 30 min, twice/d. All cases in this group developed urinary retention because of neural reflex due to trauma to the birth canal & vulva or to lower abdominal surgery. The point chosen were safe, the method was simple & convenient, no side effect or adverse reaction of any kind.

360#Yang FS (1987) [Research into mechanism & clinical applications of laser AP]. Laser Surg Med 7(1):77-78. Laser-AP is a special therapy that unites the action of biological stimulation of a low-power He-Ne laser & the AP points. The mechanism of this therapy basically corresponds to that of AP at TCM points. It adjusts the inner Yang balance, moves Qi & Xue, improves the function of the vital organs. Thus it attains curative effects in illness. 1) Laser-AP over points whose sensitivity is fixed & repeated properly, mostly corresponds to AP points used in TCM. 2) The lines linked with the sensitive points basically correspond to the cyclical lines of the main & Collateral Channels. They are superficial & can be influenced by slight pressure. 3) The sensory induction presents double direction conduction & the phenomenon of relay sensory induction. 4) A sensitive warp is connected with the organs having pathological changes. 5) The recessive sensory induction can be interfered with by magnetism. In recent years, with this mechanism as a basis, we have been utilising TCM diagnosis & treatment in our clinical applications. Using Laser-AP has enabled us to attain curative effects in diseases such as bronchial asthma, peripheral facial paralysis, infantile enuresis, hypertension, allergic colitis, hyperthyroidism, & deafness.

361#Yang HH (1986) [Advances in clinical uses of Shenque-CV08 point]. JTCM 27(1):37-40. The history of point CV08 & its increasing use recently, was reviewed. CV08 (centre of navel) is very easy to locate. Application of ancient therapies (moxa stick, hot-rubbing, kneading, medicine plasters etc) at CV08 is simple & the medicine is liable to be absorbed through navel. This gives CV08 wide prospects for clinical use. Good effects have been achieved in many diseases such as omphaloproptosis, navel disorders, morbid night crying of babies, infantile influenza, infantile malnutrition, dysentery, diarrhoea, cough, asthma, oedema, sweating, dysuria, enuresis, gastroptosis, intestinal obstruction, pruritus, menorrhagia, leucorrhagia etc. Simultaneous use of CV08 with other points improves treatment greatly.

362#Yang JL; Jin PL; Li YS (1991) Neurogenic bladder treated by AP: Report of 30 cases. J AP & Moxibust 7(1):28-29. In this group, there were 22 cases of multiple lacuna cerebral infarction, 6 cases of cerebral embolism with lacuna cerebral infarction & 2 cases of cerebral embolism with lacuna with infarction. AP with Bu Fa was applied on Z_01-Sishencong, SP06, CV04, CV03, BL32 & BL23. Deqi from CV04 & CV03 could be conducted to vulva, & that of SP06 & BL32 to the pudendum. The needle was retained for 30min, & manipulated 2 times. AP treatment was once/d, for 10 times/course, with an interval of 3 d between courses. After 1-2 courses, it was cured in 22 cases (disappeared in symptoms, reduced or disappeared in pyramidal sign) & improved in 8 cases (disappeared in most symptoms, reduced or disappeared in pyramidal sign).

363#Yang QH; Xiao YN (1988) [Athletic injuries treated mainly by hand AP]. J New Chin Med 20(10):32-33. Soft tissue injuries & strain of various parts of the body were treated in 166 cases. Points: 1. Acupoints of hand AP, contralateral to the affected limb. 2. Hand Figure AP: Draw a line on either aspect (palmar or dorsal) from the tip of the middle finger passing through the midline to reach the wrist. These two lines represent the figure of a human body from the vertex to the perineum anterior & posterior median lines of the head & trunk with corresponding parts & organs. Use strong manipulation & retain needles for 10-30 min. Puncture Ashi points, or those found by a point sensitivity detector. The overall effective rate was 96%.

364#Yang YD (1985) [Clinical uses of the method of different diseases in same treatment in AP therapy]. Shaanxi J Chin Tradit Med 6(7):320-321. Enuresis & seminal emission: CV03, Sp06, BL23, BL32 & BL28. 2) Rhinitis, epistaxis & olfactory abnormality: GV23, LI20 & LI04 with Xie Fa; retain needles for 15-20 min. 3) Lactation deficiency, mastitis & mammary hyperplasia: CV17, ST18 & LI04 with even manipulation; retain needles for 15-30 min. The examples mentioned above indicate that this therapy of treating different diseases with same treatment can be used in the clinic.

365#Yang YH (1985) [Experiences in AP therapy of hypogalactia]. Chin AP Moxibust 5(4):48. Mrs. Yang, age 27, a farmer. 1 mo postpartum, her breast milk gradually decreased because of excessive anger. Distending pain was experienced in the breasts. Then she was diagnosed as lactation insufficiency (Shi Syndrome, LV-Qi Xu Syndrome). Puncture CV17, ST18, Tongru 1-3 + SI03. Treatment was given once daily. After 4 treatments, the patient was cured.

366#Yang YZ (1988) [Enuresis treated by AP: Report of 43 cases]. JTCM Chin Mater Med Jilin (2):25. Points: Yeniao (Nocturnal Enuresis), CV06, CV04, CV03, SP06 etc. In the first treatment, Yeniao was needled singly and, afterwards, alternately with CV06, CV04, CV03, SP06, using strong stimulation. Needles were retained for 20-30 min & manipulated every 5-10 min. 7-10 sessions constituted one course of treatment. 41/43 cases were cured, 2 failed.

367368#Yang ZG (1989) [Clinical uses & development of long needle therapy]. Tianjin TCM (5):12-13. Marfan's syndrome originates from dysfunction of KI, BL, GV Channel, & the brain; it causes Xu of SP-ST. Therefore, the therapeutic principle of "Regulate the postnatal to correct the congenital" or "Strengthen SP to consolidate KI" should be observed. Under this principle, in using the long needle, special attention should be paid to the selection of BL points BL28, BL25; Helper Points of Yangming Channel were used also, with GV points to regulate Yangqi & replenish & nourish the brain. GV20, GV23, BL25, BL27 were selected to treat a female. Bu Fa, with twisting-rotating, was used at the GV points. The BL points were punctured towards their respective transverse processes to a depth of 2-3". After treatment for 3 mo, she could leave the sick-bed & walk. 6 mo afterwards, she was able to take care of herself. A patient with enuresis was cured by AP at CV06, ST29, CV03. Also: Yang ZG (1989) [Clinical uses & development of long needle therapy]. Tianjin JTCM (4):20-22, contd. The long needle is one of the 9 kinds of medical needles in ancient times. Its manipulation is quite complicated. Long-needle AP has the following characteristics: Specific points are used, such as Quanzhi, Jingbi, etc.; fewer & better Helper Points; unique manipulation necessitating the co-operation of both hands; & penetrative needling method. For example, in treating uroschesis, CV06, CV04, GV20, BL54, ST29 were selected. The needle was inserted at BL54 & penetrated to ST29 to 5-6" deep. The twisting should be gentle, the insertion should be slow, until Deqi spreads to the perineum & the urethra. Then Xie Fa was used by twisting-rotating. CV06, CV04 were needled to 3-4" deep; Bu Fa was used by twisting-rotating. Bu Fa was used at GV20 by twisting-rotating. AP was used daily without retaining the needles. After 4 sessions, urination normalised.

369#Yang ZG (1994) [Clinical observation on 86 cases of prostatitis & prostatic hyperplasia treated with the elongated needle]. J Chin AP Moxibust 10 (1):23-24. Bid the patient lie on his side & flex his knee joint. With an elongated needle (No.30, 5-7" long), penetrate through from BL54 or CV01 to ST29. The insertion should be slow. At a depth of 5-6", there will be a strong Deqi radiating to the urethra. Use normal Bu Fa-Xie Fa. The needle is not retained. AP at CV06, CV03, ST29, CV04 perpendicularly to a depth of 3-4"; CV06 with Bu Fa; the other points with normal Bu Fa-Xie Fa. Aim to make Deqi spread down to the urethra. Add BL23, BL24, BL52 in lumbago caused by KI Xu. Add SP06, SP09 in impotence, spermatorrhoea, prospermia. Add ST36, SP04, PC06, HT07 in anorexia, loose stool, bodily heaviness, cold limbs, insomnia. Add GV14, LU09, ST40 in throat problems, excessive thirst, constipation. Cured 21 cases; clearly effective 33 cases; improved 19 cases; treatment suspended 13 cases; total effective rate 85%.

370#Yang ZM; Chen LH; Zhang H (1993) [Female infertility due to KI Xu treated by drug partitioned moxibustion: Report of 150 cases]. Shaanxi J Chin Tradit Med 14 (6):274. The therapy was beginning from the d 5 of the menstrual cycle. Pericarpium Zanthoxyli & Herba Asari were mixed in portion of 2:1, & ground into fine powder. Take 2.5 grams of this powder, add moderate amount of normal saline to make medicinal paste. Put the paste on the umbilicus (CV08), & covered with a piece of fresh ginger. Then moxa was used for 30 min, once/d for 10 d/course. Also, Nu Bao (placenta) & Shu Ling Pills were given orally until the next menstrual cycle. After 2-3 courses of treatment, 43 cases were cured, 54 cases marked improved, & 53 cases retained no change. The pregnant rate amounted to 29%. The total efficacy rate was 65%. It indicates that this therapy can regulate the ovarian function, raise the level of oestrogen hormones, induce ovulation, & promote the corpus luteum, thus regulate the menstruation.

371#Yao CX (1988) Primary agalactia or decreased lactation due to mental stress can be treated by AP. JTCM (ENG) 8(2):128. AP treatment for agalactia: bilateral ST18, right HT03, right LI04 & CV17. The AP needles are inserted in the points & retained for 15-30 min except CV17, for which the needle is withdrawn immediately after insertion & moxa applied for 5 min. Treat once/d for 1-7 sessions. The effect will be still better if galactogogues are used simultaneously.

372#Yao T (1993) AP & somatic nerve-stimulation - mechanism underlying effects on cardiovascular & renal activities. Scand J Rehabil Med 29:7-18. AP & AP-like somatic nerve stimulation exert modulatory effects upon cardiovascular & renal activity under different physiological & pathophysiological conditions. It seems that AP facilitates the physiological reflexes in response to changes in internal or external environment. Thus, AP can lower high BP in hypertensives, elevate low BP in hypotensives, & promote urinary sodium excretion during hyperosmotic challenge, etc. AP effects are thought to be mediated by activation of the small myelinated fibres coming from muscle receptors. Preliminary studies show that different neurotransmitters & neuropeptides are involved in the effects of AP.

373#Yao YF (1994) [Recent development on male sexual disorders treated by AP]. Chin AP Moxibust 14 (6):319-322. The article summarises the treatment of impotence, retrograde ejaculation, spermatorrhoea, prospermia etc. with AP in recent years. There are various methods of AP therapy in treating male sexual disorders, such as hydro-AP, Ear-acupressure, point massage etc., apart from conventional AP. All the methods are easy to perform, satisfactorily effective, & readily acceptable to patients.

374#Yelland S (1995) Using AP in midwifery care. Mod Midwife Jan 5(1):8-11. AP is based on the theories of TCM. These have little in common with the western models of anatomy or the processes of health & disease. However, it appears that in many cases AP is clinically effective (greater than placebo). Many women look to alternative therapies during pregnancy & childbirth. AP is safe, cheap & works clinically. AP is therefore a valuable holistic skill to add to the midwife's repertoire. Both research & a system of training are required if AP is to play its full part in midwifery care.

375#Yin KJ; Su TS (1992) [Experimental research on regulating the reverse with AP in the treatment of mammary cancer]. J AP Moxibust 8(4):20-22. In this experiment AP is used to regulate the inhibited state of mouse macrophage activity induced by high concentration of oestradiol (E2) (simulated pathological state of mammary cancer). The result reveals that AP is definitely effective in antagonising the above state, & improves the low percentage of phagocytosis of macrophage(m|+), the phagocytic index & the hypo-regulated state of the surface receptor of macrophage(c3b receptor). This shows that AP can prevent & treat the occurrence & development of mammary cancer both in aetiology & pathology, & opens up a new path for the prevention treatment of mammary cancer. The related mechanism for further study.

376#Yin XJ, He ZC, Yang XP (1991) [Observation of the effect of Ear-AP in painless parturition]. AP Res 16(3-4):250-251. 20 cases of pregnant women were successively treated with Ear-AP or acupressure in painless parturition. Vegetable seeds were taped with 0.5*0.5 adhesive plasters at Earpoints Shenmen, Uterus, External Genitals, Urethra & Lower Rectum. Press continuously with two hands on the points or apply EAP at Earpoints Shenmen -> Uterus, External Genitals -> Lower Rectum, using continuous wave (3-5 Hz) to the limit of the patients' endurance. Pain could be alleviated immediately: no pain 20%, little pain 50%; some alleviation of pain 30%.

377#You SZ; Zhang SL; Li SR (1987) [Clinical research on treatment of chronic prostatitis with laser-AP]. WFAS 1st Conf (Eng):30-31. 88 cases of chronic prostatitis were treated by laser-AP. Method of treatment: Fibre optics with a diameter of 80 um was inserted into a hollow needle, whose tip had already been positioned in the prostate. Thus, AP was carried out when the needle was positioned & He-Ne laser was irradiated through the fibre optics. 88 cases were treated with a cure rate of 53% & an effective rate of 99%. Its advantages are higher effective rates, shorter therapeutic courses, no adverse reactions, & safe & easy to use. Also: You SZ; Zhang SL; Li SR (1988) [A clinical report on 119 cases of prostatitis treated by laser-AP]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu (AP Res) 13 (3):184-188. 119 cases of prostatitis were treated with a helium-neon laser-AP needle. The patients were divided into two groups, therapeutic group & control group. In the therapeutic group, the laser-AP needle was inserted into the prostate through CV01 to directly irradiate the prostate. In the control group, it was inserted into the rectal fossa to indirectly irradiate the prostate. In the therapeutic group, the cured rate & the total effective rate was 53% & 99% respectively & the prostate was reduced by 0.449 cm in average. In the control group, the corresponding figures were 23%, 84% & 0.108 cm respectively with significant differences as compared with the therapeutic group.

378#Yu J (1985) [Ovulation induced by AP]. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 5 (4):200-201. The paper reviews research on ovulation induced by AP at the Obs/Gyn Hospital at Shanghai First College. Since 1961, AP was the main treatment used in patients with irregular menstruation; the ovulation rate was 54%. Since 1982 EAP was used to treat irregular menstruation caused by dysfunction of hypothalamus & hypophysis, of which the ovulation rate is the same with the above-mentioned, & make part of infertility patients pregnant. This explains that the patient whose hypophysis & ova still have a certain function can discharge ova after AP. Animal experiments also show that AP may induce the growth & maturity of the follicle within the ovary & even ovulation in rabbits.

379#Yu J, Zheng HM, Ping SM (1989) [Changes in serum FSH, LH & ovarian follicular growth during EAP for induction of ovulation - Article in Chinese]. Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih Apr; 9 (4):199-202. Changes in serum FSH, LH & follicular size were observed in chronically anovulatory patients during EAP treatment for induction of ovulation. 7 cases were diagnosed as PCOD, 3 as dysfunctional uterine bleeding, & 1 as hypogonadotropic amenorrhoea. Among them 8 cases complained of infertility for a mean of 2.7 yr. Pregnancy or the combination of biphasic BBT & ultrasound confirmed ovulation. During one cycle with 3-d EAP at CV03, CV04, Extra 16 & SP06, 5 patients ovulated (ovulatory group); of these, 3/4 infertile cases became pregnant. The other 5 cases remained anovulatory; of these 3 cases got biphasic BBT, but no typical ovulatory signs were found on ultrasound; 2 cases remained in monophasic BBT. Serum FSH, LH values were elevated in ovulatory group, & FSH pulsatile frequency increased significantly during EAP (from 2.10+0.42/4h to 3.70+1.64/4h), but not in anovulatory group. No apparent changes were found in serum LH pulsatile frequency & pulsatile amplitudes of FSH & LH. Follicular diameters in the ovulatory group increased markedly, while diameters in the anovulatory group ceased to grow at 14-16 mm. EAP may induce ovulation via regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary function leading to normal secretion of FSH & LH.

380#Yu J; Huang WY; Zheng HM (1986) [EAP induced ovulation & changes in skin temperature of hand]. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 6 (12):720-722. 61 EAP cycles were given to 31 cases of anovulatory menstrual disorders. 23 cycles in 17 cases developed biphasic BBT within 2 wk after the treatment (51.8%) which denoted the occurrence of ovulation. One patient became pregnant during the second treating cycle. Acupoints were CV04, CV03, Y_18-Zigong, & SP06. EAP was applied 30 min/d for 3 d consecutively. BBT, vaginal exfoliative cytological smear & skin temperature on the volar surface of the index finger & the centre of palm (ST) were taken before & after EAP.

381#Yu J; Huang WY; Zheng HY (1984) [Observation of EAP induced ovulation & changes in skin temperature, serum beta-EPLS, FSH & LH]. 2nd Natl Symp AP-Mox APA Beijing;:554. EAP treatment was given in 30 cases with anovulatory menstrual disorders, BBT, exfoliative vaginal cytology, urine FSH, abdominal pneumography, laparoscopy & ultrasonic B-scan were performed in all cases so as to exclude pelvic organic disease & premature ovarian failure. Skin temperature (ST) of the index finger & the centre of the palm were measured with a transistor thermometer, & after EAP at LI04 & TH05 for 30 min. EAP stimulation of ovulation occurred in 42-57%. A basic endogenous oestrogen level & ST elevation after EAP predisposes to a biphasic BBT. EAP can influence endogenous opioids & serum FSH, LH levels, but data at present are insufficient to elucidate the mechanism of HPOA regulation.

382#Yu J; Yang SP; He LF (1996) Studies on Inducing Ovulation with AP. Biol Reprod 54:379-379. Shanghai Med Univ, Shanghai 200011, PRC. No abstract online.

383#Yu J; Zheng HM; Chen BY (1986) [Relation of hand temperature & blood beta-endorphin-like immunoreactive substance in the induction of ovulation with EAP]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu (AP Res) 11 (3):86-90. 11 chronically anovulatory patients polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) 9, hypogonadotropic amenorrhoea 1, oligomenorrhoea 1) were treated with EAP in 13 cycles. On the d 10 of each cycle hand temperature (HT) & blood beta-endorphin-like immunoreactive substance (beta-EPIS) levels before & after EAP were determined. 5 healthy women with normal menstruation were used as controls. In many anovulatory cases the excessive sympathetic activity & HPOA disorder may be regulated by EAP. Monitoring of hand temperature change may provide a rough but simple method for predicting the effect of EAP on ovulation. Blood beta-EPIS plays an important role in the mechanism of EAP-induced ovulation.

384#Yu P; Zhao R; Zhu TY (1989) [Influence of AP on pituitary prolactin of agalactia patients]. Chin AP Moxibust 9(6):29-30. Pituitary prolactin (PRL) has an effect on breast excretion. 17 cases of agalactia were treated by Earpoint pressure + AP. Earpoint pressure + AP can increase the level of PRL & the quantity of galactosis. The mechanism of treating agalactia by Earpoint pressure + AP is discussed.

385#Yu R; Wu CX (1992) [Functional metrorrhagia treated by Earpoint taping with Dried Vaccaria Seeds: Report of 100 cases]. Zhejiang JTCM 27 (7):299. Main Earpoints: KI, Uterus, Appendix, Pelvic Cavity, Endocrine, Adrenal, Subcortex, Ovary. Helper Earpoints: Diaphragm, LV, SP, & Lumbago. Each time, 3 Main points & 2 helper points were selected. After routine sterilisation, tape dried Vaccaria seeds to selected points; knead & press them gently. Press them heavily to produce Deqi (sensation of distension, numbness, & aching). Ask the patient press these seeds heavily to produce Deqi. Ask the patient press these seeds heavily for 10-15 min, 3-5 times/d. Such measure was applied to both ears concurrently & seeds were changed every 2 d, 10 times/course. In line with the principle of Syndrome Differentiation, various Chinese drugs were used to treat the control group (50 cases). After 3 courses, 81 & 18 cases were cured, 16 & 22 improved; 3 & 10 cases were unchanged. There was a significant difference (p<.01) between these two groups.

386#Yu TG; Zhu JT; Zhuang YR (1994) [Clinical observation on 147 cases of pruritus vulva treated by block-therapy (Hydro-AP). Chin AP Moxibust 14(3):137-138. They treated 147 cases of vulvar pruritus with methylene blue blockage at points GV01 & CV01. The curative rate was 52%, & the total effective rate 93%. The therapeutic effect was significantly better than that with blockage of benadryl at the affected area (p<.01).

387#Yuan S, Zhang YH, Kang XS (1984) 110 cases of mastosis treated by AP. JTCM Mar; 4(1):5-6. AP at ST16 or ST18, CV17 + LV14 was used to treat patients with mastosis. Of 110 cases, 31% had complete disappearance of lumps & pain, 59% had reduction of lumps & less pain & 10% were unchanged. AP had a remarkable effect in mastosis. However, AP should be stopped if no improvement occurs after two courses.

388#Yung CR; Chan WW; Lin JH (1986) EAPA for surgery in dogs. AP Res Q (38):47-50. Using EAP we performed 60 surgical operations in 42 dogs in this study. Neither sedatives nor local anaesthetics were used before or during the operations. The surgeries included: ovariohysterectomy (24), abdominal laparotomy (5), tracheotomy (2), thoracotomy (2), craniotomy (1), open reduction & application of intramedullary pin for femoral fracture (1), splenectomy (1), nephrectomy (1), umbilical hernioplasty (1), mastectomy for mammary gland tumour (1), ear cropping (5), & some regions of body's incision & suture (16). ST36 & GB34 on both legs were used when animals were situated on dorsal or ventral recumbency; ST36 on both legs & GB34 or SP09 on each leg were used on lateral recumbency. When the animals showed no evidence of pain at the beginning of the operations, the cases always finished successfully. No analgesia was found in the other 3 dogs that were highly nervous during ES so the operations were given up. Among 42 dogs, one was selected for splenectomy, thoracotomy & craniotomy every week. No tolerance to EAPA effect was found in this animal. EAPA using the method mentioned in this study can produce satisfactory whole body analgesia in dogs while performing any major surgery.

389#Zanini F (1988) [Correction of abnormal foetal position by stimulation of BL67]. Minerva Riflessoter Laserter 5 (2):67-69. Preliminary experience in the use of BL67 stimulation to correct foetal malposition is reported. Ten cases are presented. Stimulation was at 3-6 Hz from 1-6 d. In 7/10 patients, foetal position was corrected & delivery took place vaginally; in the other three, stimulation had no effect & Caesarean section was performed.

390#Zeisler H, Tempfer C, Mayerhofer K, Barrada M, Husslein P (1998) Influence of AP on duration of parturition. Gynecol Obstet Invest 46 (1):22-25. Dept of Obs&Gyn, Univ of Vienna, AKH, Austria. The aim of this case control study was to evaluate the thus far controversially discussed influence of AP (AP) on the duration of parturition. Fifty-seven women with AP treatment (group A) were included in our study after spontaneous vaginal full-term delivery. The control group included 63 women (group B). Median duration of the first stage of parturition was 196 min in group A & 321 min in group B (Wilcoxon 2-sample test, p<.0001). Median duration of the second stage of parturition was 57 min in group A & 57 min in group B (Wilcoxon 2-sample test, p=0.82). Thirty women had a premature rupture of the membranes (PROM), in group A 66.7% & in group B 33.3% (chi2 test, p=.02). Women without AP (group B) received oxytocin significantly more often during the first stage of parturition compared with group A women (85 & 15%, respectively, chi2 test, p=.01) as well as during the second stage of parturition (72 & 28%, respectively, chi2 test, p=.03). AP can be recommended in preparation for childbirth due to its positive effect in shortening the first stage of parturition.

391#Zeitler H (1988) [Clinical practice in AP: some recommendable points]. Akupunkturarzt Aurikulotherapeut 15 (1-2):16-25. Some common points are recommended for AP teaching. Included are points for treating prostatitis, prostatic pain (KI04, TH05); constipation (both atonic & spastic constipation (LI11, ST37), dysaudia, hearing loss (TH05, SI03); phantom limb (CV17, LI04); somnipathy (PC06); shoulder-arm syndrome (TH05, GB41); vertigo (SI03, PC06); sexual disorders including LV, KI, SP, PC, HT, LU Channels etc.; tennis elbow (TH05, SI08); back vertebral injury, pain at cervical vertebrae, (SI03, TH05), back pain, lumbago (GB41, BL62), toothache (LI01, SI03).

392#Zhang CM; Liu Y; Guo CJ (1988) [Breast pain treated by AP: Report of 36 cases]. Shaanxi J Chin Tradit Med 9(6):275. The breast pain mostly occurs before menstruation. pain becomes severe after fatigue or anger but no mass is found in menses. According to the clinical symptoms, breast pain can be divided into three Syndromes: 1. LV Xu. 2. LV & KI Xu. 3. Qi & Xue Xu. Treatment: Group A: ST15 bilateral, CV17, LI04 bilateral. Group B: GB21, SI11, & BL18 all bilateral. Helper points SP06, TH05, ST36, CV06 etc. Alternate Group A & Group B once/d; retain needles for 20-30 min. Manipulate needles 2-3 times during the session. One therapeutic course consisted of ten treatments. Of 36 cases, 19 recovered in the short term, 5 were effective & 2 were of no effect. The total effective rate was 94%.

393#Zhang DB1 (1984) [Preliminary exploration on "CV (Ren Mai), Chong Vessel (Chong Mai) & GV (Du Mai) are 3 branches of one oligion"]. JTCM 25(2):53-55. The author discusses the saying: "Three Channels CV, Chong & GV originate from Bao Zhong" (inside the lower abdomen or uterus), & the concept & location of Bao Zhong. Bao Zhong is a specific TCM term with its location & physiology in males & females. Bao Zhong can not be regarded just as "uterus" used in modern medicine, because uterus includes a part of organs in the reproductive system & endocrine glands associated with reproduction in modern medicine. The location of Bao Zhong does not simply refer to the location of uterus, instead, Bao Zhong is located midway between the area below the kidneys & the transverse bone in the lower abdomen, & originates from CV01 in the perineum.

394#Zhang DB2 (1984) [Clinical uses of point CV17]. Yunnan JTCM 5(3):38-39. CV17 is 1.6" below CV18 at the pouch between the breasts. When needling, it is appropriate to direct the tip downward along the skin. CV17 has a wide range of indications & is mostly used in emergency aid. It is effective in calming asthma, descending reverse flow, regulating Qi, harmonising ST, stopping vomiting, promoting lactation, activating blood circulation & relieving pain. Four efficacious case records are appended.

395#Zhang DL (1984) [AP in treating 42 cases of mastitis]. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 4(4):239. Ipsilateral BL14 was selected. The doctor pressed on BL14 with his thumb & examined the breast with the other hand, when the patient felt no pain then inserted the needle by twisting & whirling 0.5-0.7" deep. The pain & tenderness disappeared after Deqi appeared on the affected side. The needle retained for 30-60 min; the drinking of antiinflammatory tea (containing Flos Lonicerea, Flos Chrysanthemi indici, raw Radix Glycyrrhizae) was used for 72 d. Result: All the 42 cases were cured.

396#Zhang H (1992) [Comparison of the therapeutic effect between AP & ear-acupressure in treating dysmenorrhoea]. Chin AP Moxibust 12(5):237-238. Both AP & Earpoint pressure was used to treat dysmenorrhoea. AP at CV04, ST29 & SP06 was used. Reinforcing method (Bu Fa) was used in Xu Syndrome & reducing method (Xie Fa) was used in Shi Syndrome. At CV04 & ST29, Deqi must reach the perineum. AP was once every 2 d. Earpoint pressure was advised at Endocrine, Uterus, Shenmen, Brain point, LV, SP, KI etc. Vaccaria Seeds were taped at the points, & both ears were treated together. Both methods were performed 3-5 d before the menstrual period & finished at the end of the period. The total effective rate of AP group (50 cases) was 92% while that of ear-pressure group (50 cases) was 86%. There was no marked difference between the two (p<.05).

397#Zhang HJ; Shao CB; Liu M (1994) [Combination of laser radiation & pricking therapy for treatment of 74 cases of acute mastitis]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 12(2):69. 1) He-Ne laser (15 mW in power) was used to irradiate the affected area (at a distance of 1m) for 30 min, twice/d. 2) Looked for the most sensitive point among GV11, GV10 & GV09. After routine sterilisation, pricked the subcutaneous tissues & break about 10 pieces of white fibrous tissues. After operation, a piece of gauze with rivanol & sterilised gauze were used to cover the injured site & fixed with adhesive plaster; avoid bathing for 3-5 d. 3) The patient was ordered to massage her own breast forcefully in maximum limit to expel milk. After treatment for 2-9 d, all the cases were cured.

398#Zhang HY; Li L (1985) [Leucorrhoea treated by Ear-AP: Analysis of 21 cases]. Yunnan JTCM 6 (6):40-41. Pattern identification & healing principles: 1) SP Xu pattern, to tonify Qi of Middle Jiao, use SP, LU, Uterus; 2) Damp-Heat pattern, to clear Heat & remove Damp, use SP, Adrenal, Uterus, Pelvis, TH; 3) KI Xu pattern, to consolidate KI Qi & tonify Yuan (source) Qi, use KI, Endocrine, Uterus, Ovary. Healing method: Acupoints of one ear were selected. After routine sterilisation, 0.5" needles were inserted into the cartilage, & retained for 30-60 min. Treatment was once/1-2 d. Needle-embedding therapy could also be used alternatively on both ears. For Syndromes of SP Xu or KI Xu, warming-needle technique could be taken. Of 21 cases, 2 were cured with one session, 16 with 2-5 sessions, 2 with >5 sessions & 1 case treated with needle-embedding therapy was not followed up.

399#Zhang HY; Yu LH (1984) [Observations on the effect of Ear-AP for dilatation of cervical os on 56 cases]. 2nd Natl Symp AP-Mox & APA (Beijing):87-88. This paper presents good results of Ear-AP to dilate the cervix in 56 cases of abortion. Three Earpoints, Luanchao (Ovary), Zigong (Uterus) & Neifenmi (Endocrine) of either ear were used. After routine sterilisation, AP was performed with No. 23-30 needles. The needles should be inserted into the cartilage of the ear. The effective rate was 98%. Ear-AP was an effective way to dilate the cervix. It shortened the time of artificial abortion, ensured complete aspiration of the embryo, & diminished bleeding. Also, it was a procedure easy to handle. Also: Zhang HY; Yu LH; Ye QZ (1988) [Dilatation of the cervix uteri by Ear-AP. Analysis of 120 cases]. Chin AP Moxibust 8 (2):21-22. They discuss 120 cases that were offered with Ear-AP for dilating uterus. Earpoints Uterus, Sympathetic Nerve, Endocrine, Ovary were recommended but one point was usually used in each treatment. 0.5" needle was inserted & retained for 1-3 min, then the cervix uteri was relaxed. For those with cervical adhesion, AP could be used at more points with moderate or even strong stimulation & the retention of needles might be prolonged. In 120 cases, 118 had satisfactory effect but the other 2 failed because of severe adhesion.

400#Zhang JQ (1984) [AP at point BL54 in the treatment of urinary diseases]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust (3):15. Case 1: female, 22 yr-old, with enuresis. Bilateral BL54 were needled until Deqi spread to anterior pudendum. The needles were retained 30 min. Treatment was every 2 d, for 10 times/course. The patient was cured after one course. Case 2: male, 26 yr-old, with dysuria. BL54 was needled until Deqi spread to external genitalia. The patient was cured after 2 courses.

401#Zhang JS (1987) [Clinical observation on the effect of AP & moxibustion on 248 cases of male infertility]. WFAS 1st Conf (Eng):34-35. There are many causes of male infertility. This report mainly explores the insufficiency of sexual function of man, e.g. abnormality of sperm, impotence & non-ejection of sperm. 108/153 cases of impotence were cured or effective (70%). 34/45 cases of non-ejection of sperm were cured or effective (80%). 24/50 cases of abnormality of sperm (18 cases had no sperm) were cured or effective (48%). 1 yr after treatment all patients cured remain normal. In treating reproductive pathology or abnormality of sperm, one should note the importance of KI Xu & abnormality of CV & GV. First, needling points of BL23, BL32; second, needling points of CV04, ST30, 1.5-2", until Deqi reaches the glans penis & twisting the needle with Bu Fa (reinforcing method) during Deqi. Points of ST36 & KI03 were added in case of impotence. Points of SP06, LV03 & SP09 were added in case of defective ejaculation. Syndrome of Yin Xu was treated by AP, but could not be treated with moxibustion. Syndrome of Yang Xu was treated by AP & moxa of CV10. The course is 20 d & intermission of 1 wk before second course.

402#Zhang JW; Zhuang LX (1988) [Spermatopathy treated by AP & moxibustion: Analysis of 145 cases]. J New Chin Med (7):31-32. Abnormal semen is defined as the amount of sperms is <.7 billion/ml, sperm motility rate <60%, deformed sperms >15%. Classification of TCM Types: 1. KI Xu; 2. Stasis of LV Qi ; 3. Qi-Xue Stasis; 4. Xu of Both Qi-Xue; 5. Internal Stasis by Phlegm & Damp. Main points: CV06, CV04, SP06, BL23, BL32, KI03, & other points may be added according to various types. 96 cases were markedly effective; 35 cases improved; 14 cases were ineffective. The result was poorer in patients with prostatitis than in those with simply abnormal semen; more recurrences were seen in the former. Points were chosen based on Differentiation of Syndromes; the key point was the manipulation of AP.

403#Zhang LZ (1985) [Breast pain treated by AP at Huatojiaji (X_35) points: Report of 30 cases]. Heilongjiang TCM Mater Med (5):38. 30 cases (female, aged 28-52) including 12 cases with pain in left breast & 9 cases in right breast, 9 cases with pain in both breasts were treated with AP. The patient was in sitting position. Inserted the needle (gauge 28 2") at the X_35 point off T3, T4 & T5 obliquely toward dorsal column to a depth of 1", stimulated strongly, retained the needle for 15 min, twisting it at an interval of 5 min. AP was once/d, 5 times/course. Of 30 cases, 70% were cured, 10% obviously improved, 20% improved. No case worsened.

404#Zhang Q; Guo ZH; Wu JZ (1985) [AP in the treatment of sexual functional disorders in 212 males]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust (3):4-5. AP at CV02, BL32, LV11 & moxa at LV01 & CV08 can regulate the imbalanced erection- & ejaculation- centre. Thus, AP may help sexual dysfunction, including impotence, prospermia, defective ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation & urination during copulation. AP & moxa were given at an interval of 2-3 d, 10 times/course. The curative period ranged from 3-47 times. Out of 212 cases, 161 were cured; 14 markedly effective; 8 improved & 29 ineffective.

405#Zhang RY, Chen ZQ (1987) [Effect of various methods of promoting the secretion of breast milk - Article in Chinese]. Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih Feb; 7(2):89-90, 69.

406#Zhang WM (1985) [AP therapy - Report of 4 cases]. JTCM 1985; 26(8):51-52. 1. Relin (Heat induced stranguary): Female, 60 yr-old. Acupoints CV03, SP06, KI03, using normal Bu Fa-Xie Fa, supplementing with LI11, SP09, SP06, BL22, BL32, retained the needle for 20 min. It was cured after 5 sessions. 2. Qiangzhong (Prolonged penile erection): Male, 39 yr-old. Acupoints CV02, BL32, LV02, SP06. During AP at CV02, Deqi should radiate toward the urethra. Needle should be inserted >1.5" deep at BL32. Using Xie Fa at LV02, manipulated needles every 5 min., retained the needle for 10 min. Applying Bu Fa for SP06, & then needled at BL15, BL23, retaining the needles for 20 min., using normal Bu Fa-Xie Fa, once/d for 7 d. The symptoms of insomnia disappeared. After 2 courses, the sexual activity normalised. 3. Impotence: Male, 29 yr-old. Acupoints CV04, BL23, BL32 & KI03, using lifting & thrusting for Bu Fa, retained the needle for 15 min., applying moxa stick moxibustion at CV08, CV06 etc. After 12 sessions, the sexual activity became normal. 4. Enuresis: Female, 17 yr-old. EAP at BL32, needled 2" deep, using continuous wave + KI03, supplemented with GV26, BL23 etc., retained the needle for 20 min., once/d. Cure followed after 12 sessions.

407#Zhang X (1988) [Postpartum urine retention treated by AP at point SP06]. Sichuan TCM 6(10):44-45. Patients were placed supine (face-up). After normal sterilisation, SP06 was needled 1-1.5", with Xie Fa (lift-thrust-twist). First, the needle was held by left hand & Deqi was willed to spread to toes. Then the needle was held by right hand & Deqi was willed to spread to thigh or perineum. Stimulation was repeated several times, then the needle was retained for 15-20 min, during which the needle was manipulated 1-2 times. 56/100 cases were obviously effective, & 35 were effective; total effective rate was 91%.

408#Zhang Y (1989) [Dr. Zheng Kuishan's experience's in AP therapy]. J Gansu Coll Trandit Chin Med (2):24-25. Case 1: Severe migraine for a long time, attacks repeated monthly: GB20, ST08, GB08, LI04. When needling GB20, Deqi should reach the affected area. Case 2: hyperosteogeny of thoracic spine; with patient in prone (face-down) sitting position, bilateral X_35(T7-T9) a 1" needle was inserted 0.5" deep obliquely toward the spine, twisted anteriorly 3-5 times along clockwise direction for 1 min/time, no needle retaining, 3 times/wk by warming passage manipulation. Case 3: female, 44 yr-old, climacteric functional metrorrhagia; AP was used at LV02, SP01 & GV26 by Bu Fa until bleeding stopped

409#Zhang YP (1992) [80 Cases of mastitis treated by AP therapy]. Beijing JTCM (2):35. All the patients in this group suffered from acute mastitis without suppuration. An AP needle was inserted obliquely at an angle of about 65 degree into the site, 0.5" beside the process of the T3, with the needle tip toward the spine 4-5 fen in depth. The needle was manipulated till Deqi was achieved. LI11 & LI10 were also needled with Xie Fa. The needles were retained for 30 min, twirled & rotated once every 10 min. The treatment was given once daily. After 3-6 sessions of treatment, 75 cases were cured & 5 invalid.

410#Zhang ZH (1986) [AP therapy: Report of 4 cases]. Shanxi TCM 1986; 2(4):36-37. 1. Roundworm intestinal obstruction in a 4-yr old boy; vomited for 2 d. Points: ST25 + ST36 bilateral, retaining needles for 1 h. The needles were manipulated once every 10 min. 30 min after the withdrawal of needles, 24 roundworms were picked out, & his distension & pain disappeared. 2. Tongue failed to be withdrawn after sticking it out: the case was male at the age of 12. He had a fever for 10 d & his tongue stuck out for 6 h. PC08, left side, was used with Bu Fa. After insertion, his mechanism of Qi became weak & slippery, then moved my thumb forward to push with force his tongue & his tongue withdrew & became normal. 3. Mastitis in 27-yr old female; redness, swelling & pain in breasts for >10 d. SI09 bilateral was used. After Deqi, lifted the needles to the superficial layer, then performed the manipulation of insertion in one time & withdrawal in three times & of lifting heavily & thrusting slowly, with the retention of needles for 40 min. Her disease was cured after three visits. 4. Nasal polyp in 62-yr old female; GV25, LI04, LU07 + GB20, GV23, LI20 were used once every 3-5 d, with 2-4 points selected each time. Her nasal polyp disappeared after about 1-mo of treatment.

411#Zhang ZS; Zhang H; Wu DZ (1985) [Effect of needling BL32 on the regulation of bladder function: Analysis of peripheral mechanism]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust (1):12-14. AP is a simple & effective treatment in bladder dysfunctions, such as enuresis & urinary retention. In animal experiments, the cystometrogram increased after AP at BL32. The effect of AP on bladder function is mainly through the supraspinal centre. The effective parts of the centre are multi-levelled, from spine to cortex, including the urination centre of midbrain-bridge-medullary reticulum. The effect of AP relies on the comprehensive structure of nervous system. The increasing cystometrogram effect of EAP is not as long-lasting as that of hand needling. EAP is suitable for acute systemic reaction, but strong intensity is needed & it can't be used repeatedly.

412#Zhang ZY; Shan YH (1987) [AP at point BL29 in the treatment of urogenital system diseases]. J Pract Med 3(3):37. BL29-1 is 2" lateral to the 3rd sacral vertebra; use gauge 28 & 3" long needle, forms the needle an angle of 60 degree with the skin surface, then inserts the needle inferiorly inside the body. When the needle passes through greatest gluteal muscle & greater sciatic foramen, there will be heavy & tense feeling under the tip of needle. Continue to rotate the needle until Deqi spreads towards lower abdomen & perineum region. Retain the needle for 20-25 min. Such diseases as gonorrhoea, enuresis, retention of urine & impotence can be treated with good effect by applying this method.

413#Zhang ZY; Zhou DH; Li JZ (1989) [Clinical & anatomical research on paediatric inguinal hernia herniorrhaphy under AP anaesthesia]. AP Res 14((1-2)):237-238. This series includes 23 cases of inguinal hernia operated under APA. The success rate was 95%. The points prescribed were divided into two groups: (A) SP06, internal anaesthesia point, GB27 through GB28, ST27 through CV02; (B) ST36, Earpoint Shenmen through Sympathy, GB27 through GB28, ST27 through CV02; 7 cases under local anaesthesia were the control group. The paper recommended the method to improve the analgesic effect under APA: (1) induction time should be >20 min; 2) Chlorpromazine & Promethazine should be given before operation; (3) more effective points should be chosen; (4) a small dose of local anaesthetic should be given. Also: Zhang ZY; Zhou DH; Li JZ (1989) [Inguinal hernia under AP anaesthesia in children]. Chin AP Moxibust 9(1):23-25. 23 children with inguinal hernia were operated under APA. On the same condition, 7 cases were operated under local anaesthesia as a control group at random. Meanwhile, anatomic structure of their inguinal canals was observed. The effect of APA: of 23 cases 65% were excellent, 31% were good & 4% were fair. The success rate was 96%.

414#Zhao G (1988) [Earpoint pressure in the treatment of menstruation postponement & amenorrhoea in 40 cases]. Xinjiang TCM (2):42. General materials: among 40 cases, 24 cases were married, & 16 cases were unmarried. Healing methods: Main Earpoints: Uterus, Ovary & Endocrine; Helper points were LV, KI & HT. Sterilise Earpoints; tape on dried Vaccaria Seeds & have patient press them. 38 cases were effective, 2 cases were non-effective. This method was non-effective to infantile uterus.

415#Zhao SL (1987) [Aspermia treated by combination of AP, moxibustion & Chinese herbal drugs: Report of 2 cases]. Sichuan TCM 5 (12):52. A male patient of 34 yr old came to consult the author because of aspermia. Points were divided into two groups. Group 1: Ginger-padded moxibustion of CV04, KI03 + AP at SP06. Group 2: Ginger-padded moxibustion of GV04, BL23 + AP at KI03. 5 cones of moxa/point were used. Needles were retained in situ for 30 min. Group 1 points were used in the first 5 d & Group 2 points in the next 5 d. A course of treatment consisted of 10 d. Decoction of Nursing KI, Warming Yang, Benefiting Sperm was also given. The patient was cured after 24 courses of treatment. Another male patient of 32 yr old who underwent the same therapy was cured after 17 courses of treatment.

416#Zhao XY (1993) [Observation on regulation of menstrual cycles by Earpoint pellet pressure therapy]. Chin AP Moxibust 13 (3):123-124. Earpoints selected were Neishengzhiqi (MA-TF), Endocrine, Ovary, HT, LV & KI. After routine sterilisation of the ear, used an Earpoint diagnostic apparatus to explore the sensitive spots, then mounted Dried Vaccaria seeds to the bilateral Earpoints & ordered the patient to press Earpoints 3-4 times/d, about 1 min/time. The mounting was changed once/4 d. After treatment for 1-2 times in 25 cases, the menstrual onset advanced 3-7 d. Next month follow-up survey showed that the menstrual cycle was normal in 23 cases, & advanced 2-3 d in 2 cases, & no discomfort was reported.

417#Zheng H (1987) [Hydro-AP in the treatment of refractory female genital diseases]. Shaanxi JTCM (2):38-40. Acupoint block therapy uses stimulation of needle in acupoint as well as the pharmacological action of drug, hence regulate the organic function & improve the pathologic state. We used various traditional Chinese & Western injection in performing the acupoint block to treat gynaecological diseases, i.e. pelvic inflammation, vulvar-ulcer, pruritus vulvae, leukoplakia vulvae, functional metrorrhagia, etc. The result of the treatment was satisfactory.

418#Zheng HT (1994) [Progress in research of the function regulation of urinary system by the treatment of AP]. Gansu JTCM 7(4):9-11 This paper sums up research progress on the use of AP to regulate the function of the urinary system. It includes the influence of AP treatment on renal urine volume & the movement of ureters, influence of AP on the condition & function of the bladder, urethra & on the bladder mechanism regulated by urinary nerve centre. It has a lot of data which have proved that AP can cure or improve acute or chronic nephritis, pyelonephritis, urinary calculi, retention of urine, urine incontinence & enuresis. AP can even cure neurogenic bladder caused by nerve damage, which explains that AP plays a very good & regulating role in the urinary system.

419#Zheng HT; Huang XM; Liao TJ (1984) [Clinical study on AP treatment of diabetic pathological changes of urinary bladder]. 2nd Natl Symp AP-Mox & APA (Beijing):31-32. Since 1982 we have observed by means of urondynamics, the effects of AP on 30 cases with diabetic pathological changes of the bladder. We also made a preliminary study on the mechanism of AP in treatment of disease by analysing several factors such as Differentiation of Syndromes in TCM, length of course, amount of residual urine & kidney function etc. Points were selected according to Differentiation of Syndromes. 1. Xu of true Ying, Xu of Qi in LU & KI. (1) CV06 (moxibustion), LU07, KI06, ST28. (2) BL35, BL29, BL39. All points were needled by Bu Fa. 2. Xu of true Ying, Xu of KI Yang. In addition to the former prescription, moxibustion was performed on GV04, BL23, CV04. Each point selected was tonified by lifting & thrusting, twisting & twirling of the needle. For Deqi to reach the lower abdomen & perineal area, BL35 & BL29 were needled deeply with long needles. Moxa stick was applied for 15 min/point, every 2 d with alternation of two groups of points, for 10 times/course. After 1-3 courses, 20/30 cases were markedly improved, 7 improved & 3 unchanged. The total effective rate was 90%.

420#Zheng JZ (1993) [Review on the treatment of male infertility with AP & moxibustion.]. J Anhui TCM Coll 12 (1):58-61. Documents about several aspects of male infertility including aspermia, defective ejaculation, impotence, sexual hypofunction, & abnormal sperm were reviewed.

421#Zhong MQ (1986) Percussopunctator treatment of enuresis on the basis of differential typing of the symptoms. JTCM 6(3):171-174. Percussopunctator treating enuresis was applied in 64 cases, 7-17 yr-old; (a) 43 were differentially classified as KI Qi Xu; (b) 21 were classified as Xu of both SP & KI. In (a), the areas selected for percussopunctation were the lumbus (BL23-BL26), sacral area (BL27-BL35), the lower abdomen, the groin, & CV12, GV20, SP06, BL23, BL32 & the "positive areas". In (b), the areas were both sides of vertebrae T5-T12, the lumbus, sacral vertebrae, the "positive areas", lower abdomen, & BL20, BL23, ST36 & PC06 points. Treatment cured 49/64 cases, improved 11 cases, but had no effect in 4. The overall effective rate was 94%. The therapeutic effect was significantly better for cases with KI Qi Xu Type than in those with Xu of both SP & KI. Possible actions of AP in treating enuresis was discussed based on TCM theory of the relation between internal organs & the body surface.

422#Zhou CH (1984) [A study on the mechanism of AP stimulating ovulation in rabbits]. 2nd Natl Symp AP-Mox & APA (Beijing):539-540. He observed the effects of AP on HPOA endocrine function in rabbits. 6 rabbits with normal intact ovaries & 3 with auto-transplanted ovaries into anterior chamber of the eye were needled at SP06, BL22, CV03, SP10 & KI12, after E2 administration for 2 d. Venous blood samples were collected before & after AP. Serum progesterone was determined by RIA & LH level in blood by radio-receptor assay. Rabbits were induced to ovulate by cupric acetate after pre-treatment with E2, or only administration with E2 was used as control. E2 increased ovarian responsiveness. AP could excite hypothalamus-hypophysis system, & induce the LH peak & ovulation. The effects of AP may be promoted to treat sterility, if pre-treated with E2 & the time of ovulation is known. Also: Zhou CH; Zhong LM (1986) [An experimental research on mechanisms of AP in activating ovulation]. Chin J Integ Tradit West Med 6 (12):746. Adult, healthy rabbits, weighing 2-3 kg, underwent one litter, were used in the experiment. Oestradiol (E2) could not induce a peak of LH but could induce a slight increase of secretion of progesterone. This effect of E2 was less obvious than that of AP. E2 may probably potentiate the reaction of ovary to FSH & promote the development of granular cells & the formation of vesicular ovarian follicles. On the basis of the effect of E2, AP could induce the peak of LH & induce ovulation. Pre-treatment with a small dose of E2, or AP combined with Chinese medicine may be used in clinical practice to improve the therapeutic effect of AP in the treatment of sterility. The LH peak occurred 2-4 h after AP. AP may have a rapid action in stimulating follicles. The right moment of ovulation should be controlled in the treatment of sterility with AP.

423#Zhou SQ (1988) [Acute mastitis treated by AP with leopard-spot puncture]. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 7(1):46. AP was used to treat a 25 year old female with acute mastitis. Points: SI01, CV17, ST18 & TH05. Xie Fa was applied on SI01 & TH05. This therapy showed no substantial change on d 2. Then a "leopard-spot needling" was performed: 4 needles were inserted around the mass at equal intervals (Circling the Dragon). Moxa was added for 15 min on bilateral TH10. After needle removal, cupping was applied on the needled points, to suck out about 5 ml milk. The patient was cured after 6 sessions.

424#Zhu XD; Huang WY; Yu J (1991) Promoting ovulation effects in patients with increase of skin temperature of hands after AP. Shanghai J AP Moxibust 10 (1):12. In this group all 27 cases were patients with irregular anovulatory menstruation, with uniphasic BBT >3mo & had rise of hand skin temperature after AP on d 10 after vaginal bleeding. They included 11 cases of PCOS, 15 cases of functional vaginal bleeding without ovulation & 1 case of neuro-anorexia. AP at CV04, CV03, Y_18-Zigong (bilateral) & SP06 started on the d 14 after the last vaginal bleeding to help ovulation. Mild Bu Fa & mild Xie Fa methods was used; needle was retained 30 min. Treatment was once/d for 3 d; when the BBT was still uniphasic 1 wk after AP, 3-d treatments were repeated. 22 cases developed biphasic BBT; of the 16 sterility cases, 6 were pregnant during the month of AP. The success rate of ovulation with AP was 50%, & in the group as high as 81%, so whether or not the rise of hand skin temperature after AP was the better method to predict the effect of the disease.

425#Zhu Y (1993) [Clinical analysis on 200 cases of artificial abortion syndrome prevented by Earpoints]. Yunnan JTCM 14 (1):33. In the group, there were 120 cases. Fifteen min before the operation, ear pressing therapy with Dried Vaccaria seeds was given to ear Shenmen, Sympathetic, Uterus, Subcortex & Prostate. The points were rubbed about 60 times so as to make the ear congested, swelling, warming & painful. During operation, the treatment was repeated. In the control group, no treatment was given. In the therapeutic group; 2 cases had slight reactions; before & after operation, number of cardiac rate fluctuated slightly. In the control group, 9 cases had slight reactions; the cardiac rate fluctuation was great. In comparison between the 2 groups, it was obviously significant p<.05; as to the change of BP, it was not significant p>.05.

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